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Anal fissure is a longitudinal or oval sore that is located in the region of the anus and it is characterized by the pearly pink wall edge. It can be acute or chronic. Fissures are the most common cause of painful bleeding from the rectum, and often the pain is very intense, although the lesion is usually small. Anal fissure usually occurs between the age of 30 and 50 equally in both sexes.

Anal fissure is a result of several factors. The most common conditions that can lead to its occurrence are:

  • injury
  • inflammatory bowel disease,
  • constipation,
  • diarrhea,
  • hemorrhoids ,
  • falling parts of anus
  • skin damage caused by the frequent use of laxatives,
  • circulatory disorder in the anal canal,
  • anal sex.
Symptoms of anal fissure are pain, bleeding and increased sphincter tone. The pain that occurs at high need, reducing after defecation, soon began to emerge again and then it is more intense and longer lasting. This situation force patients to postpone defecation for several days, resulting in harder stool which cause even greater pain. Bleeding as one of the signs of the disease is usually minimal and manifests as a reddish-pink line along the hard and formed stools.

In the case of anal fissures, there are several things patients can do to relieve symptoms.

Precautions

Use of rough and perfumed toilet paper should be avoided, because it can irritate the wound, causing even greater pain. Instead of toilet paper, it is desirable to use wet wipes or if it is feasible to wash the anus after each bowel emptying. Given that the area should remain dry it is advisable to powder it each time after washing. Sitting in such circumstances can be very painful so it is advisable to sit on the pad which provides comfort. To speed up the process of healing anal fissures it is necessary to make drastic changes in diet to avoid conditions such as diarrhea or constipation. In case of constipation, stools are large and hard and can deepen the existing sores. On the other side, diarrhea softens the tissue in the rectum, causing irritation. Therefore, it is necessary to increase the intake of fruits, vegetables, whole grains and drink 8-10 glasses of water. It can also be used nettle juice to ease bowel discharge. If there is a need for uncontrolled scratching affected area, this need should be ignored because the nails may aggravate the situation.
If a person suffers from excess weight, he/she should lose weight because fat people sweat more, especially between the buttocks, which further slows the healing of the fissure.

Treatment

In the fissure healing sitting in warm water or chamomile tea for a period of 15-20 minutes can be of great help. Also, in order to allow less painful bowel emptying, applies putting petroleum jelly into the rectum and enema, which allows the stool to slide without irritation. To the anal fissure can be directly applied wheat germ oil, Aloe Vera compresses or gel, creams with vitamin A and D, preparations based on marigold, St. John's Wort oil and plantain infusion. All those have positive impact on alleviating pain and inflammation and help in faster healing of sores. In addition, chamomile and witch hazelnut infusion can be used, affecting the constriction of blood vessels in the area to speed healing of the fissure.

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