People who live healthy (no-smokers, athletes) usually have lower blood pressure. This means that they are less exposed to risk for stroke, kidney and heart diseases. However, too low blood pressure can cause serious health problems. If blood pressure is not high enough blood doesn’t reach sufficiently to vital organs which can eventually cause their cancellation. If the brain does not get enough blood, brain cells are not sufficiently supplied with oxygen which can cause dizziness or even faint. If there is not enough blood in coronary arteries which lead blood to heart muscle, it is possible to feel pain in the chest and even to get heart attack. If isn’t delivered enough blood to the kidneys, they won’t function properly, which results in the retention of toxic substances in the body (urea and creatinine). Low blood pressure can even lead to a state of shock, which involves the cancellation of the heart, brain, liver, kidneys and lungs.
Low blood pressure usually manifests by vertigo that occurs when rapidly stand up from state of lying and sitting. Dizziness, lightheadedness and fainting that occur during the standing up as a result of low blood pressure is called orthostatic hypotension.
If people with low blood pressure do not feel any health problems and no signs of organ damage, then the low pressure is not treated. However, it is necessary to consult a physician to determine what the reason for low blood pressure is. If there are symptoms low blood pressure treats, depending on its cause.
If dehydration is the main cause of low blood pressure, then applies the treatment with increased intake of fluids and electrolytes, which can be administered orally or intravenously.
If low blood pressure is caused by loss of blood, then the loss is compensated with infusion and transfusion of blood.
If there is Septic shock then applied antibiotics and infusion.
If the blood pressure decreases due to the use of drugs for high blood pressure or diuretics then it should reduce or eliminate them from use.
The cause of low blood pressure can be bradycardia, which appears due to the use of drugs or sinus disease and heart block. In the first case, treatment involves the reduction or complete cessation of the drugs, but in the second case the treatment of bradycardia incorporates pacemaker.
Also, the tachycardia can cause low blood pressure. Depending on the type of tachycardia uses different types of treatment. So, for atrial fibrillation can be used drugs, electrical cardioversion or isolation of pulmonary veins, while treating ventricular tachycardia incorporates the use of defibrillators and medications.
Low blood pressure may be the result of pulmonary embolism and deep vein thrombosis. These diseases are treated with medication for the blood clotting, intravenous therapy with heparin and oral warfarin.
If pericardial fluid is cause of low blood pressure, it removes by a procedure called pericardiocentesis.
Postural hypotension can be treated with increased intake of caffeine, salt and water. However, increased salt intake in coronary patients may lead to heart failure, so before using this therapy should consult a doctor.
If low blood pressure occurs after a meal, than ibuprofen or Indocin are mainly used.
Vasovagal syncope also causes low blood pressure. This disease can be treated with many drugs, such as beta blockers, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, escitalopram oxalate, paroxetine, sertraline, citalopram, fluvoxamine, fludrocortisone. If drug therapy doesn’t give any results then uses a pacemaker.