Main component of cigarettes is nicotine. Nicotine is used in medicine in curing addiction of smoking and restrained consumption of nicotine helps termination of smoking.
Increased blood pressure and heart rate, ventricular and supraventricular tachycardia, segment depression less supraventricular arrhythmia are some of the cardiovascular effects. In case of coronary artery disease coronary artery Vasoconstriction is possibility.
In quitting of smoking therapy, when is given transdermal nicotine to patients with coronary artery disease these are the side effects: : new ventricular and supraventricular tachycardia, increase in PVC frequency, less supraventricular arrhythmia less arrhythmia and lower heart rate, new ST segment depression, and an improvement in ST- or T-wave changes. Hardly ever, myocardial infarction is related to usage of nicotine. Some of the patients were smokers and such had more nicotine in system than recommended and also had coronary artery disease and are given transdermal nicotine to quit smoking. New ventricular and supraventricular tachycardia increase in PVC frequency, supraventricular arrhythmia, less arrhythmia and lower heart rate. Occurrence of arrhythmias or angina usual heart rate were not drastically diverse at the same time as smoking and during transdermal nicotine therapy. Myocardial infarction is not in relation to usage of nicotine in in curing addiction of smoking. In patients that previously had asthma there were respiratory side effects together with bronchospasm, in relation to usage of nicotine inhaler and nasal spray.
Local erythema and itching are dermatologic side effects which are no concern and do not ask for stopping of the therapy. Dyspepsia, diarrhea, nausea, and dry mouth are gastrointestinal side effects. Increased salivation, flatulence, tooth disorder, glossitis, and unpleasant taste, are the things that of nicotine gum may develop. Touchiness, bad dreams, dizziness, tremor, sleeping difficulties, and headache appeared in 3-12% of patients as nervous system side effects. Arthralgias and myalgias are very exceptional musculoskeletal side effects. Also pain in the jaw may be when chewing the nicotine gum. Increased thrombus development and increased accumulation of platelet are hematologic side effects.
Metabolic side effects are best explained in case of 39 year old male. He lived through hyponatremia and syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) after treated for nicotine addiction. His cough was worsened progressively over the period of one month. Analyzing his condition, results showed pneumonia with bilateral lower lobe infiltrates. After proper action after period of 16 days the nicotine patch was reduced to normal level and after two more days he was send away home.
At least two patients had problems with vision in relation to usage of the nicotine gums.