Leukocytes are not normally present in urine. Only a few leukocytes in urine can be considered as normal result of urine testing. Their presence may point to infection of urinary tract. If analysis of urine shows presence of leukocytes and if there are no nitrates in the urine, urinary infection is almost certain. Since these blood cells are in charge with elimination of infective agents, their presence in the urine points to potential presence of certain infective agents. Bacteria are present in the urine in case that urine contains leukocytes.
Causes of Leukocytes in Urine
Kidney infection is in all cases followed by leukocytes in urine. Their number becomes significant. The very infection can originate from kidneys but it can also affect other parts of urinary tract and then spread onto the kidneys. People who are immunodeficient are more prone to urinary infections than the healthy ones. Additionally, prolonged usage of urinary catheters can lead to urinary infection presenting with leukocytes in urine. Cystitis, or inflammation of the bladder, is another possible cause of leukocytes in urine. This medical condition affects women more than men.
A block in urine flow can result in presence of blood in urine. This can be caused by certain obstructions by tumors, stones or in men by enlarged prostate. If there is blood in the urine it is mostly accompanied with significant number of additional leukocytes.
Pregnant women can sometimes excrete proteins and leukocytes in urine. Proteins and leukocytes in urine in this case mostly originate from a woman's vagina so in most of the cases there is no need to worry. Still if a woman's urine contains large amounts of proteins and the leukocytes persist in urine she needs to go for further examination as this may point to some more serious conditions such as infection of bladder or even worse.
If one does not urinate frequently enough and restrains from urination, this can also lead to bacterial multiplication inside the bladder, consequent infection and presence of leukocytes in urine.
Treatment of Leukocytes in Urine
The very treatment depends on the cause of the infection. Antibiotics tend to help with both, elimination of bacteria and the presence of leukocytes in urine.
Prevention is in this case the best cure and if one does not develop urinary infection he/ she will not have to face with leukocytes in urine.
If leukocytes are found during routine analysis of urine and they are present in number that is higher than allowed one should be further examined as this way the infection can be found on time and proper treatment can be more efficient.