Decreases Urine Output
Decreased urine output is medically known as oliguria. It is a symptom of a variety of medical conditions and it is most commonly related to dehydration, renal failure, obstruction in urinary tract, and hypovolemic shock. Oliguria may also be one of the symptoms of organ dysfunction syndrome. No matter what the underlying cause is this symptoms has to be taken very seriously and the cause needs to be established as soon as possible.
Oliguria refers to input of urine lower than 400mL per day in adults. In infants oliguria occurs if the output of urine is less than 1mL/kg/hour and children whose urine output is of less than 0.5mL/kg/ hour are classified as oliguric.
Causes of Decreases Urine Output
The leading cause of decreased urine output is dehydration. Low intake of water or increases perspiration most commonly result in dehydration and consequent oliguria. Dehydration also accompanies diarrhea, vomiting and fever. In acute renal failure improper functioning of the excretory system leads to inadequate absorption of water and results in decrease urine output.
Other causes of oliguria are low cardiac output, hypovolemia and vascular collapse. If there is not enough water in the body the kidneys will not excrete water. Instead the absorption of water will increase and this causes oliguria.
Even certain medications may interfere in urine output. They include immunosuppresants, chemotherapeutics and some antibiotics.
In men enlarged prostate can decrease elimination of urine. Even urinary obstruction caused by stones of tumors may cause decreased urine output.
And finally, oliguria may be one of numerous postoperative complications.
Diagnostic tests for Decreased Urine Output
People who notice they are not urinating enough or if they suffer from additional symptoms are supposed to visit their doctors. If the doctor wants to test urine output and search for underlying cause of this condition he/ she will perform certain tests.
Patient may be inserted catheter and the urine can collect in the bag so that the doctor has perfect insight in the amount of theexcreted urine. Blood test may point to the presence of urinary infection and renal failure which may be responsible for oliguria. Urine analysis is routinely performed. It can show the presence of leukocytes, red blood cells or proteins. Furthermore, urine culture may isolate bacteria and confirm kidney or bladder infection. Ultrasound of the kidneys may visualize obstruction and give insight into the structure of urinary tract. Additional testing includes CT scan, intravenous pyelogram or cystoscopy.
If doctor suspects on other causes beside those which originate from urinary tract s/he will perform additional tests.
Treatment for Decreased Urinary Output
The treatment for this condition depends on the actual cause. If medications cause oliguria they are discontinued. In dehydration patients are either given fluids orally or intravenously. If the underlying cause is renal failure patients must undergo dialysis. And obstruction of urinary tract is most commonly treated surgically.