Complications of Behcet’s Syndrome
Behcet’s syndrome is quite a peculiar medical conditionbecause it involves episodes of recurrent genital and oral ulceration andpanuveitis which occur for no particular reasons and its causes cannot bepinpointed. The disease is commonly characterized by constitutionaldisturbances, loss of weight, fatigue, malaise and similar symptoms. Some casesof Behcet’s syndrome may also be involved in certain skin related symptoms suchas pustular eruptions of pseudofolliculitis and erythema nodosum. Othersymptoms which may be associated with Behcet’s syndrome includeoligoarthrtopathy of the shoulders, ankles and the knees. Some rare cases ofBehcet’s syndrome may also involve certain symptoms which affect the kidneys,the lungs and the gastrointestinal tract. Behcet’s syndrome may also beassociated with certain types of medical complications as well. Neurologicalcomplications triggered by the Behcet’s syndrome are not fully understood andthe exact causes are yet to be discovered. There are also certain vascularcomplications but they only occur in rare cases. When they do occur, theyusually involve meningoencephalitis, hemisphere lesions and spinal cordlesions. In most cases the patients recover completely over the period of a fewyears. There are still cases which may involve further attacks, and sometimeseven disability induced by progressive deterioration may occur. Repeatedattacks along with high levels of leucocytosis, progressive disease course andincomplete recovery are only some of the factors associated with the poorprognosis for this medical condition.
Epidemiology of Behcet’s Syndrome
Behcet’s syndrome is a medical condition which occurs mostlyin Eastern Asia, the Middle East and around the eastern portions of theMediterranean. The country mostly affected by this dreadful medical conditionis Japan. This disease is also quite common in Turkey, where it occurs in ruralareas much more than it does in urban areas of the country. There have alsobeen cases of Behcet’s disease reported in the United Kingdom.
Diagnosis and Study
Behcet’s syndrome is not that easy to diagnose. Certaincriteria changes included an increase in diagnostic specificity and diagnostic sensitivity.Recurrent oral ulceration was always the prerequisite for the diagnosis of theBehcet’s syndrome but there are also cases of this medical condition in whichoral ulceration does not occur at all. During the fifties it was firstdiscovered that the Behcet’s syndrome is associated with certain neurologicalfactors. It was during these times that the clinical syndromes were classified intomain three types. The first typeinvolved brainstem disturbance which is commonly accompanied by bulbar muscleweakness, ataxia, dysarthria, gaze palsies, nystagmus, ocular motordysfunction, evolving cranial neuropathies, skin eruptions, arthralgia andfever. Other common symptoms may involve meningism and headaches. The second type envolved meningomyelitiscommonly accompanied by hemisphere signs, spinal cord signs and neurologicalsigns. The third syndrome is a confusional one, usually accompanied byquadriparesis, pseudobulbar palsy, Parkinsonism and dementia. Certain vascularcomplications may occur in some cases and the same can be said for certaintypes of thrombosis. Rare cases of Behcet’s syndrome may also affect the muscles,which are manifested as polymyositis. Current studies associated with the Behcet’ssyndrome are aimed at defining other clinical syndromes which may be associatedwith the disease. Further goals of the current studies include characterizingdifferent sorts of imaging and immunological abnormalities and identifyingimmunological and clinical prognostic factors related to further activities.
There was a study which included 50 patients who sufferedfrom Behcet’s syndrome. 31 patients were male, 19 of them were female. Threepatients originated from North Africa, two from the Indian subcontinent, threefrom Turkey, three from Iran and thirty nine from Europe. Only one patient didnot have any mouth ulcers. 29 patients suffered from uveitis and 41 patientssuffered from orogenital ulceration. 30 cases included the neurologicalsyndrome, 22 cases involved skin lesions and 20 cases involved oligoarthritis. Outof all 50 patients, five of them suffered from certain hemisphere signs, sevenof them suffered from spinal cord syndromes and 25 five of them hadmeningoencephalitis which affected their brainstems. There were four patients whoonly showed symptoms and signs of encephalopathy and meningitis. There was onlyone reported case of optic neuropathy, and the same can be said for thatsingular case of bilateral facial weakness. There was a singular case ofisolated bilateral sensorineural deafness as well. Out of all 50 patients therewere only two cases of acute vestibular disturbance reported and there werealso two cases of cortical venous thrombosis. Intracranial hypertension occurredin only four patients. Only one patient suffered from pontine disturbance, twopatients had trouble with dysphagia and dysarthria, while there were twentypatients who experiences ocular motor dysfunction and ataxia. Seven of themexperienced spinal cord disease. Four patients had hemiparesis and there wasonly one case of hemisensory disturbance. There were three patients who even hadseizures.