Gum disease is a term used for the medical condition whichis characterized by the growth of bacteria and a series of conditions whichdestroy the tissue located around the teeth. This condition is also sometimesreferred to as periodontal disease. The gums themselves are medically referredto as gingivae and they are a firm type of fibrous tissue. As the person slowlyages the gums gradually decrease and sometimes they may be involved withabscesses which are sometimes rather hard to detect. The presence of bacteriaon the surface of the teeth is always responsible for the formation of plaqueand it is the very substances which triggers the occurrence of gum disease.When the plaque remains on the surface of the teeth for prolonged periods oftime it easily gets transformed to calculus or tartar which can only be removedby a dentist. There are two main stages of gum disease and those are gingivitisand periodontitis.
Gingivitis is the first stage of gum disease and it isusually characterized by redness and swelling of the gums. The gums become verytender and they tend to bleed rather easily. This stage of the condition can beeasily reversed and treated by a dentist and some proper flossing and brushingat home. When gingivitis does not get treated on time, in most cases it evolvesinto periodontitis.
Moderate cases of periodontitis are low grade gum infectionsin which the bacteria from the calculus destroy the gums and bones whichsurround the tooth due to the presence of volatile sulphur compounds and othertoxins. All this leads to the formation of pockets between the gums and theteeth and various debris get stored in them. As the pockets gradually becomedeeper and deeper, the condition also gets worse. With time, the affected teethbecome loose and eventually they fall off. Advanced instances of periodontitisare characterized by pockets between the gums and the teeth which are more than6 mm deep. These cases can only be resolved by surgical procedures which arecommonly performed by a periodontist or a dentist. The tissue which is diseasedgets removed and the teeth get cleaned thoroughly. Reshaping or bone graftingalso sometimes needs to be done. The gums get stitched to the teeth afterwards.
Gum abscesses occur in people who suffered from bone lossaround the root of the affected tooth. These may be acute or chronic.