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Introduction

Acne affects the human skin, typically teenagers between 13 and 17 in puberty, but the acne problems can last longer. Acne diminishes over the years, but it can appear well into adult age, into the thirties and forties. Acne appears on the face, upper chest, the back or on the shoulders and upper part of the arms. Acne develops on the oily skin in the form of whiteheads, blackheads, scars, acne lesions commonly referred to as pimples, zits and spots or pustules.

Treatment

Inadequate and unprofessional treatment may worsen the condition of the affected skin. Cosmetic products such as lotions, cremes, and moisturizers irritate the skin and acne if they are too oily or inappropriate for the skin type. Squeezing the spots and touching and picking the acne with dirty hands is not particularly effective, so avoid doing this. This will only cause further irritations and leave the skin scarred and inflamed. Medications for acne treatment should not be taken without prior consultation with the doctor specialist.

Certain medications can complicate the problem even further, steroid drugs and creams for treating eczema can make things worse. It is essential to visit the doctor for the treatment. Hormonal pills, especially some contraceptive ones,  have an effect on the quality of skin and acne can develop. Yet, some contraceptive pills have a favorable effect on the skin. It all depends on the level of hormones the pills contain. If the level of male hormones increases it is likely to cause acne.

Sebaceous glands located in the skin release oily substances, sebum, that lubricate the skin. In people with acne problems, these glands produce too much sebum due to higher testosterone levels for example. The pores are blocked and tubes holding the hair, hair follicles, attached to the gland are clogged with dead skin cells and the excessive sebum. All of these cause blackheads and oily skin. Excessive oil in hair follicles is prone to infections with bacteria Propionibacterium. the bacteria inflames the skin resulting in red skin full of spots. If the conditions worsen, cysts under the surface of the skin are formed which can eventually leave scars.

Treatment usually last for a long time and after carefully examining the skin, the doctor includes the therapy suitable for the skin condition. The treatment aims at stopping the spreading of acne, easing the symptoms and preventing scarring. It is recommended to gently wash or cleanse the face twice a day. Some medications contain benzoyl peroxide with antibacterial effect. Benzoyl peroxide dries the skin and removes the outer dead layer of the skin, enabling the pores to breathe.

The doctor prescribes medicines, lotions or creams that have benzoyl peroxide. A person rubs the lotions or cream onto the skin that contains azelaic acid, retinoids with vitamine A, clindamycin or erythromycin. The lotions and creams are used daily in the prescribed dosage. Together with lotions and creams, the doctor can prescribe medicines, antibiotics which are taken for three months. Some contraceptive pills containing ethinylestradiol with cyproterone acetate suppress the production of excessive sebum and regulate the skin. For severe problems with acne Isotretinoin is prescribed. Due to the numerous side effects it cannot be used without a doctor's supervision.

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