Most common disorders of thyroid gland are the problems with secretion of thyroidal hormones.
Hyperthyroidism is a condition that is caused by the increased secretion of thyroidal hormone. It usually affects younger people, and symptoms are different, because thyroidal hormones affect different functions in the organism. One of the more common symptoms is warm and hydrated skin. Palms are often red (eritema) and patients usually complain of high temperature. Persons that suffer from this condition are visibly nervous, easily agitated with increased appetite, but their weight is reduced. Insomnia happens often, intestinal motions are affected also and menstrual issues are present.
Eye problems might occur as a result of the high level of thyroidal hormones and they also include prominence of eyeballs and dysfunction of extra ocular muscles.
Struma diffuse toxica – Morbus Graves is a condition that includes struma, eyes problems and hyperthyroidism. It affects women more than men and the main symptoms are heart issues like tachycardia. There are also systolic pressure and palpitation, and basal metabolism can be increased. Another condition is disorder of muscles and nerves.
Hypothyroidism is presented with insufficient amount of thyroid hormones. There is a primary type, caused by the problems of thyroid gland and secondary type, caused by malfunction of the hypophysis. Peripheral hypothyroidism is caused by the resistance of the peripheral tissue towards thyroidal hormones. Most common type is primary type and it is caused by the autoimmune disease of thyroid gland. Central type is caused by the dysfunction of hypophysis, so this gland in a brain cannot excrete hormones that affect the thyroid gland. Hypophysis problems can be caused by a tumor, radiation, ischemia, inflammation, chirurgical trauma. People who suffer from hypothyroidism usually complain of tiredness, sleepiness, intolerance for cold drink. Speech is somewhat slowed down and spasms might be present. There is also some swelling on the face, and their tongue can be enlarged. Bradycardia might happen, especially if there is some other heart condition included, reflexes are slowed down, muscles are painful to touch, and hypothermia can be present, too.
Very frequently a disorder that might appear is neoplasma. Benign neoplasma is called adenoma and it is different from thyroid cancers. Benign can be in a form of follicle, while malign usually refers to endocrinological tumors. There is also inflammatory condition of the thyroid gland with acute form which occurs because of the bacteria infection, and it can happen at any age. Inflammation can be present, swelling might be present, too. There is also acute neck pain, and inability to rotate neck in all directions etc.