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Role of the thyroid gland is to provide our organism with T3 andT4 hormones. T3 is an active hormone and it affects several body functions andmetabolic processes. Thyroid gland issues are presented with changes in the secretionof the hormone or with the changes in the hormonal structure.


Struma simplex is a condition characterized by theincrease of the thyroid gland without the disruption of the function. Struma canbe endemic or occasional, and the endemic type usually happens in areas where there isn’tenough food or water, while occasional struma is a result of congenital malformation of synthesis of thyroid hormones, chemical substances. Struma can happen to children younger than 3 years old andit can affect adults, too. This condition can be caused by some substancesin the food that have so-called strumogenic effect. Applying iodine can completely prevent the occurrence of struma and other similar conditions

Clinical symptoms include feeling of squeezing in the throat,feeling that there is something in the throat, coughing urge, dyspnea and others. Treatment depends on the cause of problems. Sometimes, thyroid gland problemhappens because of some medication used in a therapy for a completelydifferent condition and usually when that condition is cured, the problems with thyroid gland aregone, too.

One of the disorders is non toxic struma nodosa, which happens more often to women. This struma is activated with a large numbers ofnods in thyroid gland. There are differences in each case when it comes todimensions of the nodes. In most of the patients, this conditionis asymptomatic. The only visible injury that can happen is thickening of theneck. If struma is large enough, additional problem might emerge because of the pressure that thyroid gland induces. There might be difficulties with swallowing, but respiratoryproblems might occur as well because of the mentioned pressure.


Thyroiditis is an inflammatory condition that can be acute,sub acute and chronic. Acute thyroiditis can be caused by virus, bacteria andfungus, while subacute thyroiditis is usually caused by a virus, and this type hasgradual process of growth. For this type first symptom is a pain in the neckarea. Chronic type includes autoimmune conditions, and can be caused byradiation. There are also two major conditions related to the secretionof T3 and T4 hormones, and those are hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism.

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