There are several types of testicular trauma, and most of them are on the long term harmless. However, there are few that can have potentially dangerous consequences. Testicles do not have the protection of muscles and bones as most of our other organs do - testicles are located within the scrotum, which hangs outside of the body, so practically they are unprotected which makes them easier to be struck, hit, kicked, or crushed, and this kind of accidents often happen during contact sports. Of course there are athletic cups available and men can protect their testicles by wearing them during sports.
Trauma to the testicles causes severe pain, bruising, and may cause swelling. In most of the cases, the testes can absorb the shock of an injury without serious damage (except the initial pain). However there is a type of testicular trauma that is called testicular rupture. Testicular rupture can occur when the testicle receives a direct blow or is squeezed against the hard bones of the pelvis. Testicular rupture can cause blood to leak into the scrotum and in severe cases surgery is needed to repair the rupture and to save the testicle. Testicular trauma is also known as torsion and is an environmental factor that may affect fertility. Within the scrotum, the testicles are secured at either end by a structure called the spermatic cord. Testicular trauma or testicular torsion is a condition in which the testicle twists on the cord that attaches the testicle to the body. When the cord gets twisted around a testicle, this way a blood supply to the testicle is cutoff. This condition most often in young males less than 25 years of age and can result from an injury to the testicles or from strenuous activity.
Unfortunately testicular torsion can also occur for no apparent reason. Symptoms of testicular torsion include sudden and severe pain, enlargement of the affected testicle, tenderness, and swelling, and a situation like this requires immediate medical attention. Treatment usually involves surgical intervention which is the only way to prevent long term consequences such as permanent damage or even removal of testicle. Research has shown that approximately 40% of men with a history of testicular torsion or testicular trauma have an abnormal semen analysis therefore make sure to seek immediate medical attention in a case of testicular torsion or any other testicular trauma which results in severe pain, but most of all an enlargement of the affected testicle, or tenderness, and swelling.