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Testicular cancer and the types

Malign tumors of testicles are not that common, they might emergein the age group from 20 to 40, which is the age when reproductive power in menis at the highest level. It affects right side more frequently and the theory saysthat infections and trauma do not play a major role in the creation of testicularcancer. Endocrine effects and hereditary factor of gonads might be the maincauses of this type of malignity. Histologically, malign tumors are divided onprimary and secondary type.

Primary testicular cancers include germinal and non-germinalform. Germinal are seminom, teratocarcinoma, choriocarcinoma and embryoniccancer, while non-germinal forms include tumors of testicular stroma (connective tissuein testicle), tumors of Leydig cells and tumors of Sertoli cells. Those twomentioned cell types are responsible for the creation of testosterone and forthe nutrition of spermatozoid cells.

Another classification is based on the phases of the cancerprogress. The first stage cancer is affecting the testicle only, whereas second stage is characterized by creation ofmetastasis that enters lymphatic system (metastasis is spreading of malign cells vialymph or blood to other parts of the body). Third stage is when metastasisenters the area just above diaphragm.

The symptoms and the causes

Interesting thing is that there might be no pain, but if itis present, it is an early sign of testicular cancer. One of the major signs isenlargement of the affected testicle. The problem here is that enlargement doesnot happen in the starting phase, but later on, when the condition alreadyexists. It can also be misdiagnosed for some sort of inflammation in testiclearea. There is also abdominal form of this cancer, when the testicle did notdescend. Another type of this cancer is based on endocrinological changes, whichinduce gynecomastia (enlargement of breasts).

Treatment is surgical, since the affected testicles and lymphaticnodes have to be removed. This is not the case with seminoma cancer, where radiotherapyis used because it has positive effect for this type. As for metastasis, itssigns might include heavy breathing, bloody saliva and gastrointestinal problems.Systemic medicament therapy is applied in this case with the use ofcytostatics.

As for the causes of testicular cancer, unfortunately, those arestill not discovered. Research shows that this cancer happens more often to menwho had problems with testicles descending into scrotum. Also, a certain genein some men appeared to be the cause, but this was not confirmed for all cases.Important thing is that constant research is done in both, finding the cure andestablishing the causes of this condition, so hopefully, one day, this healthproblem will not be a problem anymore.

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