Testicular cancer is a rare disease which is caused by abnormal growth of the cells in the testicles. This cancer is the most common in white, young males. The risk is increased if someone in your family has had testicular cancer, if you have suffered from some other testicular disorder or if your testicle did not descend when you were born.
The most common symptoms of testicular cancer includes a lump on the testicle, discomfort in the scrotum, enlargement of the scrotum, dull pain in the lower abdomen or groins and fatigue. Some other symptoms may be tenderness or enlargement of the breasts, pain in the back or short breath.
In order to make a diagnosis, your doctor will perform a physical exam first. Other tests which would provide the answers concerning the lump include ultrasound test which will help in determining the nature of the lump, blood test to see if there are cancerous markers and biopsy. If your doctor suspects that the cancer has spread, he/she will order additional tests such as X-ray imaging, MRI or CT scan. These tests will also help to determine the stage of the cancer. Your doctor will also determine the type of the cancer. There are two types of testicular cancer, seminoma and nonseminoma cancers. The first type is more common in older men. There are four stages of testicular cancer which are determined according to the fact whether it has spread or not. The first stage is when the cancer affecter just the testicle, the second stage involves the lymph nodes in the abdomen, the third stage involves the lymph nodes above the abdomen and the fourth stage is when the cancer has spread to other organs, such as liver, bones, lungs and brain.
The treatment for testicular cancer depends on the stage and type. The most common treatment is a surgical removal of the testicle. The surgery is performed almost all stages of the cancer. If the cancer has spread to the lymph nodes, they will be removed also. Another treatment is radiation therapy which is particularly useful in treating seminoma cancer. Chemotherapy is also option for treating testicular cancer. However, chemotherapy mat affect fertility, and it can cause hair loss and nausea.