There are the three kinds of muscles in the human body: the heart muscle, smooth muscles and skeletal muscles.
The two firstly mentioned kinds of muscles are situated around or near the organ or the blood vessels and the intestines. They contract under the control of the involuntary, or to be more precise, the unconscious (autonomic) part of the brain and nervous system. The function of this kind of muscles is to regulate the processes of the normal functioning of the organism.
But, the more related to the problem of the muscle spasms are the skeletal muscles, which are connected to the bones. Logically, they are monitored and controlled by the voluntary and conscious part of the brain, since the results of their work are the concrete movements, such as, for example, the act of walking. Their fibers are rich in the protein called myoglobin that has the function of passing on the oxygen. In order to work properly, these skeletal muscles must be supplied with enough oxygen, glucose and electrolytes.
The muscle spasms are the sudden, abnormal and involuntary contractions, and they can be very painful. They are more likely to happen to the skeletal muscles, especially if they are not supplied with enough of previously mentioned substances. So, in order to prevent the spasm, the muscles mustn’t get dehydrated.
But if the spasm still occurs, the first thing one should do is stretch the affected muscle carefully. But, if one of the smooth muscles is affected by a spasm, the medical help should be provided. Of course, it is recommendable to take some painkillers. And, in both cases, the next stage of the treatment depends on the cause of the muscle spasm.
Unfortunately, it is very difficult for the specialists to decide which medication should be prescribed, because it is based only on the patient’s description of the spasm. The painkillers are usually prescribed because the patients usually get focused on the pain, as the most relevant symptom. But, the most effective are the medications that provide a good balance between the muscles and the neurotransmitters.
When it comes to the drugs, there are also the anti-Parkinsonism medications (minimize the amount of acetylcholine), Harmonyl and Sinemat (which controls the amount of dopamine), Tegretol (regulates the seizures) and Lioresal and Valium (which are used for the relaxation for muscles). The treatment with Botox is also advisable, since it is injected in order to paralyze the muscle and that way to solve the spasm problem.