SugarLevels and insulin
The body’svital energy source consists of sugars, created from carbohydrates, which arebroken down in this manner to aid digestion. Insulin is a hormone that iscritical to this process, as excessive amounts of carbohydrates are notconverted into sugars, leading the glucose to then enter the blood. This state,called Blood Glucose is the moniker for this process of non-conversion. Bloodsugar or glucose is expresses in millimoles per liter (mmol/l) or milligrams perdeciliter (mg/dl).
Measuringblood sugar levels
Monitoringblood sugar levels can be performed by measuring glycohemoglobin levels orsimply checking the blood glucose levels often. Diabetics are advised toutilize a variety of blood glucose monitors, while frequency in measurement anda diabetes blood sugar journal are also strongly suggested. A journal canprovide the necessary feedback on the influence of certain treatments on theperson in question. Options such as the fasting blood glucose test, oralglucose tolerance test and random blood sugar test are some of the availableones. Monitoring blood sugar levels should be performed four times daily, witha minimum of two times per day, prior to sleep and meals. Midnight checkups aresometimes, but not often, required. Blood glucose levels should remain under140 mg/dL and approach or be equal to the standard 70 to 120 mg/dL level.
Methods ofmonitoring blood sugar levels
During afasting blood glucose test, the standard glucose levels are 110 mg/dL or higher,while the diabetes glucose levels are 126 mg/dL or higher. In the case of an OralGlucose Tolerance Test the numbers are 140 mg/dL in normal glucose levels and lessthan 200 mg/dL when concerning diabetes glucose levels. Finally, in the case ofa Random Blood Glucose Test, the normal glucose levels are up to 100 mg/dL,whilst the diabetes ones are 200 mg/dL or higher. Note that the oral glucosetolerance test is performed 120 minutes after consumption of a sugar solution, whilethe stomach is empty. An alternate measurement method involves the periodicmeasurement of glycosylated hemoglobin, sometimes known as hemoglobin A1c or glycohemoglobin.Levels of glycohemoglobin tend to follow the same pattern as blood glucoselevels, mimicking a rise or drop. Thus, measuring glycohemoglobin can indicatethe level changes of sugar for diabetics, allowing for easier monitoring. Thissort of test is done in a laboratory, and is required for type one diabeticsonce every 3 to 4 months, and type two diabetics once per year.
For a moreprecise insight into the coresponding levels of blood glucose and glycohemoglobin,it can be noted that the when the average blood glucose level is 135 mg/dL, theaverage glycohemoglobin level is 6%. If the said level of blood sugar is 170mg/dL, then the co-responding glycohemoglobin level is 7%. Each of thefollowing changes in average blood sugar level warrant a one percent raise inaverage glycohemoglobin levels, namely 205 mg/dL to 8%, 240 mg/dL to 9%, 275mg/dL to 10%, 310 mg/dL to 11% and 345 mg/dL to 12%.