Diabetes and Pre Diabetes
Diabetes mellitus is a condition characterized by high levels of bloodsugar. Diabetes patients have problem with insulin in their body. The problemmight be that the human organism doesn’t produce enough insulin or it doesn’trespond to insulin. In both cases lack of insulin causes the increase ofglucose (blood sugar). Diabetics suffer from several common symptoms, includingincreased hunger and thirst and frequent urination.
There are three types of diabetes: diabetes type 1 is an autoimmune disorderwhich is caused by the lack of produced insulin. Diabetes type 2 is caused byresistance to insulin present in the body. Diabetes mellitus type 3 is diabetescharacteristic for pregnant women, and, it’s called gestational diabetes.
Pre diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance is also a medicalcondition in which patients experience heightened blood sugar levels. The onlydifference is that their blood sugar levels aren’t as high as in diabetes. If leftuntreated for couple of years it may progress to diabetes mellitus type 2 andbecause of that this is a condition that must be treated.
Pre Diabetes Risk
Some people are at higher risk than other to develop prediabetes. If you have a family member who has diabetes, there are high chancesthat you would also suffer from the same medical problem. People who lead asedentary lifestyle or whose body mass index is over 25 (overweight people)often have pre diabetes, especially if they are over 40 years of age. Women havingproblems with polycystic ovary syndrome or with the history of gestationaldiabetes are at risk of developing pre diabetes. Sometimes, patients with lowlevel of good, protective cholesterol (HDL) have heightened risk of developingthe pre diabetes as well.
There are diagnostic tests for pre diabetes: FPG and OGTTtest. Patients are advised to fast a night before the test in both cases. FPGor fasting plasma glucose test is the test used to measure level of glucose inthe blood before the patient had anything to eat. Normal level of glucose isaround 100mg/dl, but in pre diabetes patients it usually varies from 100 to125mg/dl.
OGTT is oral glucose tolerance test. It has two stages: thefirst stage is to measure the level of blood sugar after fasting for a wholenight. After that, patients are given a high glucose liquid to drink, left fortwo hours and then tested for glucose level again.
Treatment for Pre Diabetes
Patients suffering from pre diabetes mellitus are advised tomaintain a healthy weight. The studies have revealed that people who lost about10% of their weight significantly decreased their risk of developing prediabetes condition. Doctors recommend healthy diet and regular exercise, as theway to lower sugar levels. These patients should avoid the food rich in fat,and use more fruits, vegetables, whole grains and low fat food in their menu.