Gangrenous gallbladder can be a result of the cystic duct blockage and it may lead to the total or partial gallbladder wall necrosis. Gallbladder inflammation called acute Cholecystitis is caused by the bile blockage due to the presence of gallstones and this situation makes way for the development of gangrenous gallbladder. This condition kills the cells by cutting their supply of blood or by infection. It can lead to death so it must be treated immediately. This problem can be present in certain organs, but it is most common on toes and fingers. The gallbladder wall inflammation is a problem that targets about 10% of people suffering from gallbladder diseases. The bile fluid is gathered, which causes additional damage and expands the wall of the gallbladder. All of this brings the death of the tissue and a problem with a name gangrenous gallbladder
The most common symptoms associated with gangrenous gallbladder are increased heart rate, shaking chills and high fever. There is a possibility of nausea and vomiting, but due to the impaired functioning of the gallbladder, digestive system problems can appear as well. Symptoms of the gallbladder diseases are painful stomach and stomach bloating, while gallbladder inflammation can be detected by the rigid abdomen and low blood pressure.
Gangrenous gallbladder cannot be detected by a simple physical check-up but it requires some additional test, such as ultrasound. Also, the level of the white blood cells will be determined by a blood test, which will also show if the patient has high count of these blood cells. Another test which will make a final decision and help with the treatment options is CT scan. Once the tissue starts to die out, it can only be removed by a surgery. The infection will continue to spread and expand to other areas if the dead tissue is not removed. The healing of the incision determines the recovery time needed after this surgery, which requires prohibition of food and the use of intravenous fluids prior to the procedure. There are two options for surgery and they are laparoscopic cholecystectomy and open cholecystectomy.
The treatment will begin with Indomethacin, which will fight the gallbladder inflammation and it will also reduce fever, pain and swelling. The infection will have to be stopped from spreading and antibiotics will achieve this goal. Since the gallstones block the bile duct, they can be removed with a procedure called Sphincterotomy. This procedure involves an electro-surgical instrument that resembles endoscope and uses sound waves of high frequency to break down the gallstones. This can help you avoid the gangrenous gallbladder in the future. If the gallbladder cancer is a threat, the gangrenous gallbladder has to be removed.