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High Potassium Levels

Hyperkalemia is the official name for this condition and the abnormal levels of this intracellular ion can create several problems. The ion pumps are used for the transportation of potassium inside the cells. Na+/K+ is the ion pump that is responsible for the state of non-equilibrium and in this state, the cellular membrane suffers a concentration gradient from this ion. In the cells sodium ion is located. This pump is responsible for pumping out of the sodium, while simultaneously pumping in the potassium. ATP molecules help these pumps with the energy since this work they accomplish require a lot of it. The process of transportation is made complete with the enzymes, which are responsible for driving or catalyzing. 

We have mentioned one of the pumps that are responsible for the transportation of the potassium through the cellular membranes, but there is another pump called K+/K+ ion pump. The potassium in the human body is crucial for the maintenance of the cellular membrane electric potential, which located in the nervous system's neurons. This is possible since the concentration gradient between the inside area of the sodium and potassium ions and the extracellular space is guaranteed by the functioning of the Na+/K+ ion pump. The ions of the sodium and potassium help the neurons located in the nervous system to function properly. The action potential is a communication between the two neurons and it usually occurs after the signal is sent from the neurotransmitter to a neuron. This leads to the flow of the sodium ions in the cells, thus causing the communication of the neurons and the closure of the sodium flow, which further leads to the hyperpolarization, which is the release of the potassium channel. This concludes the communication, with the end of the action potential, which is the only time the communication can take place.

Treatment

The treatment will involve diuretics which will remove the electrolytes via the urine. Hyperkalemia can be treated with the ion exchange resins, along with the x-ray radiation and chemotherapy. The chemotherapy and X-ray radiation can cause the leakage of the potassium, which can also happen following the cell destruction. The hyperkalemia and hypernatremia can be caused by taking of aldosterone antagonists, like spironolactone, which will create the release of the sodium ions and the retention of potassium ones. Hyperkalemia can be caused by the diabetes mellitus, which is a result of insulin deficiency. The problem of hyperkalemia can be created by the metabolic acidosis. This problem is associated with the entering of the excess acid by the ion pump.

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