High Potassium Levels
Hyperkalemia is the official name for this condition and the abnormal levels ofthis intracellular ion can create several problems. The ion pumps are used forthe transportation of potassium inside the cells. Na+/K+ is the ion pump that is responsible for the state of non-equilibrium and in this state, the cellularmembrane suffers a concentration gradient from this ion. In the cells sodiumion is located. This pump is responsible for pumping out of the sodium,while simultaneously pumping in the potassium. ATP molecules help these pumpswith the energy since this work they accomplish require alot of it. The process of transportation is made complete with the enzymes, which are responsible for driving or catalyzing.
We have mentioned one of the pumps that are responsible for the transportationof the potassium through the cellular membranes, but there is another pump called K+/K+ ion pump. The potassium in the human body is crucial for the maintenanceof the cellular membrane electric potential, which located in the nervous system'sneurons. This is possible since the concentration gradient between the insidearea of the sodium and potassium ions and the extracellular space is guaranteedby the functioning of the Na+/K+ ion pump. The ions of the sodium and potassiumhelp the neurons located in the nervous system to function properly. The action potential is a communication between the two neurons and it usuallyoccurs after the signal is sent from the neurotransmitter to a neuron. This leadsto the flow of the sodium ions in the cells, thus causing the communication ofthe neurons and the closure of the sodium flow, which further leads to thehyperpolarization, which is the release of the potassium channel. This concludesthe communication, with the end of the action potential, which is the only timethe communication can take place.
The treatment will involve diuretics which will remove the electrolytes via theurine. Hyperkalemia can be treated with the ion exchange resins, along with thex-ray radiation and chemotherapy. The chemotherapy and X-ray radiation can causethe leakage of the potassium, which can also happenfollowing the cell destruction. The hyperkalemia and hypernatremia can becaused by taking of aldosterone antagonists, like spironolactone, which willcreate the release of the sodium ions and the retention of potassium ones. Hyperkalemia can be caused by the diabetes mellitus, which is a result of insulindeficiency. The problem of hyperkalemia can be created by the metabolicacidosis. This problem is associated with the entering of the excess acid bythe ion pump.