Natural food is not so rich in sodium (Na), but during cooking people usually add salt thus we all consume enough of it. Sodium can be found in cellular fluid and our body monitors the concentration of it in blood. If there is too much sodium in our system kidneys will eliminate it through urine. Sodium along with potassium maintains the proper blood pressure and is responsible for distribution of water. Sodium balances acid and base in our body, too. Sodium is part of our nerves and it helps in transforming neuron impulses. Muscle contractions are stimulated by sodium of which the most important is heart beat. This mineral is also part of our bones. It can be found in secretions from the body such as saliva and enzymes. Together with chloride and bicarbonate sodium harmonizes positive and negative ions in body fluids and tissues. Calcium and other minerals can be dissolved in blood thanks to sodium.
People lose sodium through sweat. This might be a problem for marathon runners thus they need to take supplements. This can also be problem for all of us if we work outside during hot summer days. In these situations sodium will prevent sunstroke. If a person suffers from diarrhea, leg cramps, dehydration, and fever sodium can help too. Sodium stimulates adrenalin gland. However, if there is too much sodium in the blood high blood pressure may occur.
People consume sodium mainly through table salt. Nowadays scientists debate whether or not people should cut down the intake of salt in food.
Sodium deficiency is a condition where human body lacks sodium. This condition can happen in the summer if people sweat a lot and at the same time eat poor diet. If moderate this condition is not very dangerous and it usually includes symptoms like weakness, apathy, nausea, cramps in the muscles of legs and hands. Therefore people should consume more salty food in summer than they consume in winter. In extreme cases the tablets of salt can be taken. In severe cases of sodium deficiency a person can experience coma, although this is very rare.
A person should eat balanced diet. If one eats a low sodium diet they can disturb the water in tissues. This can also interfere with acid-base balance in body. However eating salty food all the time can develop high blood pressure. People eat about 8-10gm of NaCl on average rate.