Everyone has experienced bruising that occurred after some trauma or damage. It is the body’s natural response and it is not unusual or serious in many cases. When a person is injured, a bruise appears in the affected area and it is usually blue or dark in color because the blood vessels under the skin are impaired and the blood collects near the surface of the skin. Another name for the bruising is contusion. It usually heals in two to four weeks and during this period; it tends to change the color. First bruises are black, and then they change to reddish blue and even to yellowish green.
Sometimes, we can notice bruises on our skin although we were not injured. These unexplained bruises are usually swollen and painful.
Causes of unexplained bruising
One of the most common causes for the unexplained bruises is diabetes and condition called acanthosis nigricans. This disorder is marked by the appearance of brown and black patches in the armpits and neck. This hyper-pigmentation occurs due to excess insulin in the people who suffer from diabetes type 2. In this type of diabetes, the people are insulin resistant. If the unexplained bruising is accompanied by excessive thirst, frequent urination and fatigue, it is probable that the person suffers from diabetes.
Sometimes we can get injured although we are not aware of it. For example, many times a day we hit into something and just ignore that as if nothing has happened because it does not hurt us. These small injuries can cause leakage of the blood because of the damaged blood vessels and subsequently bruises. Strenuous exercises can lead to the rupture of the blood vessel, also. Many elderly people complain of unexplained bruises. It is so because, as we get old, our skin becomes thinner and the fat under it reduces. The blood vessels thus become more prone to the damages.
Bruising is a condition that is more frequent in women than in men. Furthermore, thinner people are more susceptible to bruising because they do not have much fat beneath the skin to serve them as a protection. It is also proven that insufficiency of vitamin C, B12 and K, as well as folic acid, can cause easier bruising. Furthermore, people who consume certain medicines, such as ibuprofen, Aspirin, contraceptive pills and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, as well as people who suffer from kidney or liver disease or any blood disorder are more prone to develop bruises.