When a girl enters the puberty, she gets her monthly menstrual cycles, which indicates that the ovaries produce eggs to be fertilized. Thus, the healthy women are fertile from the onset of puberty to the menopause, although the best time for conceiving pregnancy is from 18 to 27 years of age. However, the women may also stay pregnant even until 35 years of age, but such pregnancies are considered to be the high-risk pregnancies.
It is quite normal that fertile women use some kind of protection from conceiving pregnancy since they do not want to be pregnant all the time and because the women plan the family today. One of the effective contraceptive ways used by women is birth control pill or contraceptive pill. The birth control pills are considered to be among the safest contraceptive methods and their use is very simple.
How does the pill work?
There are several ways how the pill works, but two main ways are suppression of ovulation and inhibition of implantation.
When the pituitary gland hormones stimulate the ovaries, they produce the eggs which are to be released in a process of ovulation into the fallopian tube at the 14th day of the menstrual period. The pill is made of the artificial hormones, which have the role to block the natural hormones that stimulate the ovulation in women. More precisely, the hormones in the pill do not let the natural hormones to reach the ovaries and thus, the eggs do not reach maturity and cannot be released from the ovaries. In this way, there is no egg to be fertilized and the woman cannot stay pregnant.
However, if the artificial hormones do not disrupt the natural hormones, the pill continues to work by preventing the implantation of the embryo into the wall of the uterus. If the egg is fertilized after all, the pill makes the wall of the uterus thinner. Thus, the endometrium is not too strong to support the fertilized egg and early abortion occurs.
Even though birth control pill belongs to the safest methods of pregnancy prevention (with 99% efficiency), it is observed that even 2-18% of women can experience unexpected pregnancy, though only in the first year of taking the pill. This usually happens due to the pill's interaction with the other medications, or because of the improper use of the pill, which usually occurs in younger women from 18 to 24 years of age.