What is Hematuria?
Hematuria is the medical term that describes the appearance of the red blood cells (RBC) in the urine. There are two types of hematuria: microscopic and macroscopic. Microscopic hematuria is not visible by the eye. In macroscopic hematuria, there are enough blood cells to be visible and to change the color of urine, usually to pink or red color.
Patients suffering from blood in the urine can also have some other symptoms, including: the visible small clots of blood in the urine, nausea, vomiting and appetite and weight loss. Some of the patients experience problems and pain while urinating and sometimes pain in the flank or groin.
Causes of Red Blood Cells in Urine
There are many different medical conditions that might cause the appearance of red blood cells in urine. Urinary infections are the most frequent cause of RBC in the urine. Bacteria infect the urinary tract, damage the tissue and may cause blood in the urine. In some cases, infection might go further, and bacteria might infect urethra, bladder or even kidneys.
Kidney problems, such as stones, inflammation or tumors could block urinary tract, leaving just a small passage for the urine. Kidney stones in particular can be the cause of intense pain and discomfort for the patients and cause blood in the urine.
Different diseases might also lead to the RBC in urine. Diabetes and sickle cell anemia are known to cause this medical condition. Enlarged prostate in older men is a non-cancerous enlargement of the prostate gland. The prostate cells tend to enlarge and cause the appearance of RBC in the urine.
Medications such as Aspirin, phenytoin, quinine, rifampin and warfarin have blood in the urine as the potential adverse effect.
Trauma, accidents, kidney infections, kidney or bladder damage and hard exercise may also provoke the appearance of RBC in the urine.
Treatment for Blood in Urine
To diagnose the condition doctor will perform urine and blood test, and sometimes kidney ultrasound and cytoscopy. Specialists will address the cause of the RBC in urine and treat that primary cause of illness.
Kidney stone patients will be prescribed with the pain killers. These patients are also recommended to drink plenty of fluids every day.
Kidney or urinary infections are usually treated with prescribed antibiotics.
If a certain medication causes hematuria, these patients are recommended to consult their doctor, about the stop or reduction of the treatment.
Sometimes, there is no apparent cause of the RBC in urine. Doctors recommend regular blood checks every 6 months and close monitoring of the blood pressure.