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Cerebral Hemorrhage – Causes, Symptoms and Treatment

Cerebral hemorrhage or brain hemorrhage is the rupture of a blood vessel in the brain, which might cause brain bleeding and damage the central nervous system.

Brain hemorrhage is usually caused by the head trauma, uncontrolled high blood pressure, abnormalities in the blood vessels or amyloid angiopathy (abnormality of the blood vessels caused by aging that causes small unnoticed brain bleeding). Brain tumor or aneurisma may also be the cause of cerebral hemorrhage.

Some people are more prone to develop this medical condition than others. Risk factors for cerebral hemorrhage include: people suffering from diabetes, hypertension, hemophilia, leukemia, sickle cell anemia and liver patients, smokers, alcoholics and women in menopause. Unconsciousness, painful headaches, nausea, vomiting, weakness, paralysis, loss of vision, problems with the speech and sudden confusion all indicate that the patient might experience cerebral hemorrhage.

Treatment depends on the cause, location and the severity of bleeding. In any case, those patients need urgent medical attention. Doctors might prescribe anti-seizure medications, pain killers, diuretics and corticosteroids. If the hematoma is larger than 3cm in diameter, surgical procedure is the only option.

Cerebral Hemorrhage – Prognosis

Some of the patients might completely recover, some will have certain consequences and problems because of the hemorrhage and others won’t survive the cerebral hemorrhage. Severity of the bleeding and area of the brain that’s affected decide the patients’ prognosis.

Epidural hemorrhage is the bleeding between the skull and the brain covering. Even if a patient does get the urgent medical attention, there are 15% chances that he/she would die. If the patient survives the epidural hemorrhage it is most likely that he/she would never get the orientation back.

Intracerebral hemorrhage might be caused by brain injury, aneurism or hypertension. The bleeding leads to brain swelling and produces heightened pressure to the brain. The prognosis for this condition is usually very good, if the patient gets the proper medical care.

Subarachnoid hemorrhage is usually presented with the severe sudden headaches, nausea, vomiting, seizures, confusion and dizziness. About 5 to 10% of these hemorrhages lead to stroke, which is rarely fatal.

Subdural hematoma appears after the trauma to the head caused by an object. This condition can be acute, sub-acute and chronic, depending when the symptoms appear. The acute subdural hematoma appears in first 24 hours, and 50 to 80% of these patients die. Sub-acute and chronic subdural hematoma appear after couple of days, or after 2 weeks from the trauma. The mortality rate for these hematomas is about 20 to 25%.

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