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Kidney stone surgery

Stones in urinary tract are solid forms, also known ascalculus or urolitiasis. There are several theories that explain the nature ofthe stones creation, although none of those gives a complete explanation. Thatis why the kidney stones could be labeled as multifactorial disease. Some of the factors that contribute to appearing of stonesare general, such as:

dysfunction of calcium metabolismproblems with metabolismof oxalateuric acid and some amino acidsnon healthy eating habits, including a lot of so-called bad calorieshigh amounts of vitamin D in theorganism.

Some of the local factors that are active in urinary tract are:

foreign matterinfections caused by bacteria called ureaseinflammation process in the kidney, andtrauma caused by mechanicaleffects (from car accidents for example).

Structure of kidney stones includes inorganic, or crystalpart (usually about 95% ) and organicmatrix (5%). Inorganic part is consisted of calcium oxalate, calcium phosphate,uric acid, urates, etc. There are three phases in the creation of stones: creationof crystalloid core (nucleus), growth of nucleus into crystals and adhesion ofcrystals into final stones.

Kidney stones can be localized in any part of the kidney andtheir size varies. Usual symptom of kidney problems are pain in the kidney area, where pain intensity depends on the size and mobility of the kidney. Pain may be followed by nausea and vomiting, but sometimes painless hematuria or bloodin the urine without any pain while urinating may occur, too.


Treatment includes pain treatment, while final goal is the elimination of the stones. Most often, spasm analgesics are used for dealingwith the pain. If there is no spontaneous reduction and disappearing of thestones, stones must be either simply destroyed or removed by surgery. Disintegrationof the kidney stones can be achieved in three ways. First is with the help of lithotripsy,ESWL process that can destroy all types of stones except those that are made ofcystine. Second type is called percutaneous nephrolithotomy, and it is based on creating a small cut on the back ofthe patient thus allowing a surgeon to remove the stone using a nephroscope. Insome cases, stones are so big that consume the entire kidney tissue (coralstones) and then combination of ESWL and nephrolithotomy is needed. This typeof treatment can deal effectively with cystic stones. After the surgery,initial recovery time is only couple of days, after that period patients arereleased, and recovery is continued at home. Third type of treatment isureteroscopy, when stones are located in urinary tract.

Treatment after these types of procedures lasts for a coupleof weeks. In that period, certain measures are taken so that kidney stones donot appear again. Those include intake of large amounts of fluids, urine is controlledon regular basis in order to prevent any infection, patient is learning how tolive healthy (with normal, healthy eating habits, regular physical activityetc.). Patient’s behavior, which requires strictly following doctor’s orders, is also veryimportant and can make recovery time shorter.

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