Colorectal SurgeryColorectal surgery is a procedure which is done in order to repair disorders on the rectum, anus, colon and in rare cases pelvic floor. The conditions and disorders which can affect colorectal tract include cancers, injuries, hemorrhoids, damages in the anus, obstruction of the passages, severe constipation, problems with fecal elimination, perforations, ulcers, rectal prolaps and other diseases.
ProceduresIn more severe colorectal disorders or damages, the surgical procedure requires making an opening on the abdominal wall through which the body waste is removed. Such surgery is called colostomy. The surgeon will take a part of the colon, pull it through the abdomen and insert a catheter. The opening on the abdomen is called stoma. The waste from the catheter is gathered in the special pouch. Similar procedure is an ileostomy. In this procedure the colon is removed and the opening is made on the small intestine. Both these procedures require pouches for the body waste. Another type of colorectal surgery is a laparoscopic procedure in which a surgeon slides a laparoscope though a tiny cut on the abdomen. The laparoscope has a camera at the end, so the surgeon can see in insides on the monitor. A few additional cuts are made for the medical instruments.
OutcomeProper care after colostomy and ileostomy is very important because these procedures carry greater risks of complication. Hospitalization takes around three days and the patient is released from the hospital to home treatment. You should also educate yourself about the adequate care of the pouch and the skin around the stomach. You will also need to be on a special diet to avoid constipation or irritation of the intestines. As far as laparoscopic surgery is concerned the hospitalization is shorter and there are less scars and less pain and the risk of complication is reduced.
ComplicationsColorectal surgery carries certain risks. Within the first days after the surgery you may be at risk of a wound infection, bleeding, blood clots, pneumonia and an allergic reaction to the anesthesia which can lead to heart problems. Other complications which can appear later includes fly symptoms such as fever, chills, pain in the muscles and headache, pain in the abdomen, constipation, sickness, vomiting, pain, redness or swelling of the wound and drainage or bleeding from the stoma. Further complications which include problems with stomach that includes necrosis of the tissue of the stoma, withdrawal of the stoma in the abdomen, protrusion of the stoma, narrowing of the opening and hernia in the vicinity of the stoma.