Bone fractures can be defined as interruption in the continuity of bones which develop due to a variety of causes.
Causes of Bone Fractures
The most common cause of all bone fractures is the thinning of the bones or so called osteoporosis. Osteoporosis is a condition that features with improper structure of the bones that makes them more susceptible to fractures. This condition affects women more than men and usually occurs later in life. Proper intake of calcium in childhood and young adulthood can be potentially effective in prevention of this horrible condition. Osteoporosis may develop on its own or it can be caused by hormonal imbalance and the use of certain medications.
Other cause of bone fractures is insufficient strength of muscles. Namely, in certain physical activities such as running that tend to repeat, muscles stop being able to support the bones. In this case muscles can absorb the load up to certain extend. However, at one moment the load becomes too huge and the muscles transfer the load onto the underlying bones. This way the fracture occurs as a result of overload of the bones. These so called potential stress fractures are followed by pain in bones and pain during the training. The best thing one should do is to rest. Still if the pain lingers the stress fracture is almost 100% present.
Impacted fractures result from the pressure that is present at both ends of the affected bone. Impacted fractures mostly occur in car accidents and in falls.
Certain fractures that can be classified as spontaneous are cause by tumors in the bones. The malignant primary or secondary bone tumors can cause bone fracture. The pain is in these fractures rather intensive and can be even present and persistent for a long time before the very fracture.
In case of all fractures the doctor has to see if the fracture is closed or open. In case that the skin is intact the fracture is classified as closed. In case of open fractures the integrity of skin is jeopardized and these fractures carry a lot of risk of additional complications, especially infections. In this case the wound is cleaned and the patient is transferred into the operating room for a surgical procedure.
If operation is needed it is performed under general anesthesia. Surgeons use different things such as rods, plates and screws to fix the broken bone and attach bone fragments. The fracture will completely heal in period of approximately few months.