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The human skeleton serves as a shield, which supports organs, fixes muscles and protects the organs such as the brain, lungs and heart. The human skeletal system is composed of fused and individual bones supported and connected by ligaments, tendons, muscles and cartilage. The skeleton of an adult person comprises around 30 of 40% of the total body weight. Muscles are connected to bones by tendons, while ligaments connect the bones to each other. The interaction of muscular and skeletal systems allows the movement of the body.

Skeletal disorders

Any kind of disturbance that prevents skeletal system from normal functioning is a skeletal disorder. Skeletal disorders may affect the protective function of skeleton or the ability to move or support the body. Skeletal disorders usually involve loss of mobility, pain and deformities. Skeletal disorders can be caused by trauma, pathogens, old age or the body’s own immune reaction. Here is a quick review of the most common skeletal disorders.


The name osteoporosis means “porous bones”, and it refers to the disease of the bones associated with the higher risk of fracture. In osteoporosis, mineral density of bones is 2.5 standard deviations or more below the mean peak bone mass, as measured by DXA. This disease usually affects postmenstrual women, but it also affects men. People with lower bone density are at the higher risk of developing osteoporosis.


Arthritis is a disease that affects the joints of the body causing the inflammation. Osteoarthritis, a degenerative joint disease, is distinguished by degradation of joints accompanied with pain, tenderness, stiffness, locking, and sometimes an effusion. The disease may lead to the loss of cartilage, and resulting in exposure and damage of the bones.


Osteomyelitis is the skeletal disorder characterized by the infection of the bone or bone marrow. The disease occurs when infections travel through the bloodstream to the bone or from the infected nearby tissues. Osteomyelitis can also begin in the bone itself if an injury exposes the bone to germs.

ScoliosisScoliosis is a medical term used to refer to a condition in which a person's spine is curved from side to side. The curvature occurs most often during the growth spurt just before puberty. The disease may result from underlying conditions such as cerebral palsy and muscular dystrophy, but the exact cause is unknown in most cases.


A bone fracture is a medical condition that refers to a break in the continuity of the bone. Fractures in the bones occur as a result of high force impact, or sometimes even from a trivial injury if the bone density is extremely low. The former is common in patients with osteoporosis, bone cancer, or osteogenesis imperfecta.


Kyphosis is a skeletal disorder associated with a curvature of the upper back. This disease occurs as a result of degenerative diseases, developmental problems, osteoporosis with compression fractures of the vertebrae or trauma. 

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