Diverticulum is the term used for the occurrence of the inflammation or infection in one or more diverticula. Diverticula are like sacs which often appear in the last part of the large left intestine, which is called sigmoid colon, as the result of the bulging out of the inner layer through the outer layer of the colon. Diverticulosis is only one sac or bulge. Several sacs are called diverticula. Diverticulitis is the presence of diverticula in the intestine while the inflammation of diverticulais named diverticulitis. It often appears in people older than 50 years, and itis more common in males than in females.
The appearance of the diverticula is usually caused be the excessively strong contractions of the muscular wall of the large intestine. It can happen when the person is on a hard diet so the colon is significantly narrowed because the stool is less produced. Also diverticulitis occurs when the piece of stool or bacteria are stuck in diverticula.
There are few symptoms and signs of diverticulitis such as low abdomen pain and fever. In some cases rectal bleeding occurs. The person who suffers from diverticulitis usually has diarrhea, constipation or abdominal spasms. Diverticulitis is diagnosed by a procedure called angiography. In this procedure a catheter is being inserted through the artery in the leg and then moved up into one of the major arteries of the gastrointestinal system. There is also another method in which colonoscope is inserted to the colon through rectum.
Diverticulitismust be treated in order to prevent further complications. Hospitalization is recommended, although some doctors let their patients to take treatment at home. Antibiotics must be used along with some liquid diet. Most frequently used antibiotics are Ciprofloxacin, Metronidazole, Cephalexin, and Doxycycline.
To lessen the pain in the abdominal region caused by muscle spasm, acupuncture is the best solution. There are also herbs such as Mexican yam, German chamomile, marsh mallow and calamus that are very effective for reducing inflammation of diverticulitis. The patients who are mildly ill can use antispasmodic drugs such as Chlordiazepoxide, Dicyclomine,Hyoscyamine, Atropine, Scopolamine, Phenobarb, and Hyoscyamine.
Doctors usually recommend plenty of liquid and foods that contain low fibers. They also suggest the patients to avoid the nuts, seeds and corn. The most common treatment in curing diverticulOtis is allopathic treatment “resting the bowel”.In this case the patient must be hospitalized and he receives fluids intravenously along with antibiotics. Sometimes,blood transfusion is also necessary if excessive bleeding occurs.