Hernia is present because of the weak abdominal muscles, which results in a penetration of different abdominal organs through the muscles. Diameter of hernia depends on the place in the abdominal wall where the rupture happened.
There are many factors that might cause hernia to happen, and some of them can be inherited or gained in life. Those that are gained in life are results of medical conditions that the body suffered from, and they would include conditions that led to weakness of abdominal wall, and also chronic obstructive lung disease because constant coughing can induce hernia. There are many classifications of hernia. Basically, there are hernia congenital and hernia acquisita, but hernias can be external and internal. Example for internal hernia is diaphragmatic hernia. There is the so-called hernia libera, the content of which can return back to the abdomen. There are also hernias that cannot return to the abdomen. Hernia incarcerata happens when the hernia get stuck while penetrating the muscle wall.
Types of hernia
Hernias include inguinal, femoral, umbilical, epigastric (lumbar) hernias, etc. Incisional hernia occurs when hernia breaches the abdomen through the old scar. There are also hernias that return even after the surgery. Umbilical hernia in babies might happen at the spot where umbilical blood vessels are held tight but in most cases, this type of hernia does not require a surgery and can be cured by wearing the bandage. Umbilical hernia in women might happen in pregnancy. Main reasons for this to happen are obesity and muscles atrophy. In this type of hernia, its content is made from duodenum. Hernias might be positioned just above the umbilicus (supra umbilical hernia), and if they are even higher, their name is epigastric.
Some rare cases of hernia include hernias in lumbar area and are usually a result of physical trauma (fall, car accident) and they are treated with the help of surgery. There is also hernia ischiadica, where hernia passes through sitting part of the pelvis. It is not easy to diagnose this particular hernia; it is often seen as apces or some other condition. In this case also, surgery is the only way to help.
Post op hernias usually do not show immediately after the operation took place, but rather after 4 or 5 years passed. Factors that lead to creation of this hernia are obesity, some previous surgery, choice of the instruments used for surgery, infection during surgery etc. Age can also cause additional problems here.