Ventral hernia is the protrusion of abdominal tissue (peritoneum) through the hole in the belly wall where abdominal organs are falling out in the hernia bag. Hernia opening (ring) usually occurs at the weakened part of the abdominal wall through which blood vessels and nerves pass. Content of hernia bag includes abdominal organs and bowel and sometimes bladder. Hernia may occur at the place where the abdominal wall is injured or cut during surgery.
Causes of Ventral HerniaSome hernias are congenital, while some occur during a life when the pressure in the abdominal cavity is increased. This happens, for example, due to hard physical effort at work, cough, with free fluid in the abdomen (ascites). It also occurs in thin and weakened people, as well as in overweight people.
ComplicationsHernia bag may grow to its contents. This leads to stronger pain, movement disorders of intestinal contents and can cause incarceration.
Also, inflammation may occur due to blood circulation disorders in organs which are fell out, due to injuring during hernia returning into the abdomen and due to delays of intestinal content. Inflammation further leads to thickening hernia bag and its content.
Incarceration is the most common complication. This disorder involves the termination of the bowel content passage through intestine that is in the hernia bag. All this leads to ileus and intestinal gangrene. Incarceration is manifested in diffuse pain firstly which is later localized to the hernia region. There is no stool or gas. Patient is vomiting and feeling nausea and abdominal cramps. Later, he/she is vomiting content with fecal smell. The situation is getting worse and requires immediate surgical intervention.
TreatmentHernia is treated surgically except in patients who for some reason cannot be operated. Hernia bag is opened, its contents returned into the abdominal cavity, hernia opening and neck are cut out and mesh is placed to strengthen the abdominal wall. Hernia should be surgically treated on time, until it became too large and when the abdominal wall is still preserved, so that it can close the hernia opening. There are several types of surgical treatment of hernia. The classical approach is rarely used. Implantation of so-called bioactive materials - mesh and laparoscopic methods are more frequent.