What is Myopia?
Nearsightedness or myopia is a condition in which the light rays fall in focusin front of the retina, instead on it. Because of this, shortsighted peopleglimmer to get a sharp picture of the items. Myopic people see distant objects asblurred, while they see near ones relatively well. Nearsightedness affects peoplebetween the age of 6 and 40, mostly children in the teenage period. After the forty-five,myopia reduces and vision improves. In contrast to the healthy eye, at themyopia the eyeball is longer or a cornea is more curved.
According to the strength, myopia can be classified into:low – up to -3 dpt (diopter) middle – from -3.25 to -8 dpt high – from -8.25 in ascending order
In addition, it can be classified by the cause:break–even – cornea is more curved axial – when the eye axis is bigger than 24mm index – too high refractive index in the lens or eye wateraccommodative – when there are accommodativecramps
According to the clinical course myopia can be:Benignmyopia does not exceed - 8 dpt and doesn’t cause complications to retina. It corrects by the weakest glass that gives a good central vision. Too strong correction could lead to the farsightedness withaccommodation difficulties.Malignant myopia rarely occurs. Diopter increases with sudden or gradual appearance of degenerativechanges in the retina, whites of the eyes and the vision nerves.
Myopia is treated by wearing glasses, contact lenses or by surgery. Depending on the stateof myopia, glasses or lenses must be worn continuously or only occasionally, whilelooking at distance, driving, watching movies, lectures and so on. In myopiadiopter has a negative sign. As the number that indicates myopia is higher, thesituation is more difficult.
The surgery, which stops the growth of myopia in children and adults withprogressive or malignant myopia, is called scleroplasty. It lasts about tenminutes, and some time after the surgery eye drops should be put in theeyes.
With the damage of the eye bottom caused by hard myopia and with hemorrhagein the retina due to diabetes, to prevent further damage, laser interventions recommend.Peripheral retinal laser coagulation can prevent retina detachment. It is conductedwithout anesthesia.
With the high myopia, eye can be insufficientlysupplied with blood. Surgery of blood vessels in the temples, with localanesthesia, increases twice a blood flow to the eye.
In stable myopia diopter can be corrected by laser surgery - refractive keratectomy.It is performed by the modern laser equipment, which enables precise reducingdiopter (minus diopters and astigmatism) in one surgical procedure. Theintervention takes a few minutes, it is performed in local anesthesia (eye drops)and the patient must instill eye drops ina strictly mode after surgery for three months.