Eye surgery, also known as ocular surgery or orogolomistician surgery, is a surgery performed to treat the eyes or eye muscles. Eye surgery can be performed by a general surgeon or an eye surgeon (ophthalmologist). Before an operation, a patient receives anesthesia to the extra-ocular muscles. Most frequently, local anesthesia is used although topical anesthesia can be given too. There are several types of eye surgerie that can be performed depending on the specific eye problem.
Eye Surgery Options
Cataract surgery is the most common eye surgery due to high prevalence of cataracts. Cataract is featured by opacification of the eye’s lens that prevents forming of clear image on the retina. It can occur due to aging, disease or trauma. In cataract surgery, natural lens of the eye is removed and artificial intraocular lens implant is inserted instead.
Glaucoma refers to a group of diseases that affect the optic nerve due to elevated intraocular pressure caused by excess production of aqueous humor. There are several types of glaucoma surgery. Canaloplasty is a simple and minimally invasive procedure done to allow drainage of eye fluid through drainage canal in the eye.
Laser Eye Surgery
Laser eye surgery involves different eye surgery options. Lasik (laser assisted in-situ keratomileusis) is a type of refractive eye surgery, performed for treating myopia (shortsightedness), hypermetropia (longsightedness) and astigmatism (impaired vision due to irregular shape of the cornea). Procedure is done using special lasers. Lasik is performed to correct vision in patients who do not want to wear glasses or contact lenses. One of the side effects of lasik surgery is dry eyes. Lasek (laser assisted subepithelial keratectomy) is a defective eye correction procedure. It is also performed on patients who want to avoid the use of glasses and contact lenses. In this procedure, a surgeon ablates small amount of tissue from the corneal stroma. Other laser eye surgeries include laser thermal keratoplasty, laser photocoagulation and laser reversal of presbyopia.
Corneal eye surgery includes most refractive surgeries and corneal transplant operations. In corneal transplant operation, known as keratoplasty, patient’s damaged cornea is replaced by a donor's healthy cornea. It is performed in case of complete vision loss. However, corneal surgery entails the risk of corneal edema.
Eye Muscle Surgery
This type of surgery is performed to strengthen, weaken or reposition eye muscles. Eye conditions treated with this type of surgery are strabismus and nystagmus.
Eye Removal Surgery
Eye removal surgery is performed in severe eye conditions such as retinoblastoma, adfvance stages of glaucoma, ophthalmia (severe eye inflammation) and congenital cystic eye.
Cosmetic Eye Surgery
Cosmetic eyelid surgery, Botox treatment around the eyes and cosmetic eyebrow tattooing are part of cosmetic eye surgery. Blepharoplasty is a procedure done to reshape eyelids. Botox surgery is usually done to treat excessive blinking (blepharospasm). Browplasty is a procedure to correct low or dropping eyebrows.