Hematoma is a collection of clotted blood in an organ ortissue and it is caused by internal bleeding. It results from leakage of bloodfrom the blood vessel wall. This can be due to a fall, accident or any injurythat leads to hemorrhage. The most common forms of hematoma are bruises andblack eyes, but they may occur internally as well. In order to diagnose thecondition a doctor must check whether the bleeding is inter-muscular orintra-muscular.
Signs and Symptoms of Hematoma
Most commonly, hematoma presents in the form of severe bruise.Collected blood can be noticed under surface of the skin. Hematoma may sometimesappear similarly to welts and affected area of the body can be stiff and firm,which is a result of body response. Blood sac is created by the body in orderto prevent heavy external bleeding out of the blood vessels. This blood sacdissolves overtime when the body breaks down the blood clot. In rare cases, the hematoma may grow and become painful to touch, which requires surgical removal.Hematoma travel into the connective tissue thereby the entire extremity can presentdiscoloration and reduced mobility.
There are different types of hematoma that are classifiedupon their location in the body. Types of hematoma that are not serious includesubcutaneous hematoma (bruises and contusions), subungual hematoma that occursunder a fingernail or toenail, hematoma auris that forms in the tissue of theouter ear and perianal hematoma which can be seen under the skin surroundingthe anus. Subgaleal hematoma occurs due to bleeding in the space between theskull and scalp and in most cases result from vacuum assisted delivery. Epiduralhematoma is a serious type of hematoma that occurs due to trauma to the templewhen blood accumulates outside the lining of the brain. Subarachnoid hematoma isa severe condition when the blood accumulates beneath the membrane that coversthe brain. Hematomas can be of size less that 3-4 mm in diameter but in someinstances they may be as big as affected limb.
Treatment of Hematoma
Hematoma of the skin and soft tissue can be treated with iceor cold packs. This way hemorrhage and swelling can be also effectively treated.Bruised limb should be elevated to reduce the swelling. Affected limb should beallowed to rest. Application of heating pad or warm towel can promote repair. Pressurebandage can be also used to reduce hemorrhage and swelling. In case ofinfection that is commonly followed by fever, severe pain and pus, affectedperson must seek medical help.