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Bed bug bites are medicinally referred to as cimicosis andthey can be associated with a large number of different types of skinmanifestations which may range from mild to severe. They may also sometimes beheld responsible for certain types of allergies and psychological effects. Developedcountries have always suffered from an increased infestation and the conditionsrelated to the bed bug bites have also increased in rate during the last fewdecades.


Bed bugs have been recognized as human parasites fornumerous centuries and people have always used many different methods inorder to get rid of them. There arecertain types of plants which have been used for eradication of bed bugsand these include eucalyptus saligna, laggera alata, pseudarthria hookeri andblack cohosh. The 18th century brought along the use of certainmixture of alcohol, henna flowers and turpentine. This was considered as a verypowerful type of insecticide. The 19th century incorporated the use ofmasked hunter bugs, opulus berries, herb and seeds of cannabis, bugbane, Robertgeranium, myrica spp., narrow leaved pepperwort, wild mint, heated oil ofterebinthina, tobacco, fly agaric and infused oil of melolontha vulgaris. Lateron, people started using kieselguhr, diatomaceous earth, certain types of soil,dolomite, lime, plant ash and black pepper as well. Bed bugs cannot beidentified that easily so the rise in infestation is really hard to track.

Causes and Diagnosis

There are two main types of bed bugs, cimexhemipterus and the most common one which is known as cimex lectularius. Most peoplebelieve that bed bug infestations occur due to a lack of hygiene but that couldnot be further from the truth. Bed bugs feed on blood and they may sometimessurvive for an entire year without being fed. It is the body warmth and carbondioxide that attract these parasites. In order to diagnose the conditionproperly the insects need to be found in the sleeping environment of a person.The big problem with diagnosis is that this medical condition can easily beconfused with several other health issues such as bacterial skininfections, chicken pox, spider bites, mosquito bites, allergic reactions orscabies. Bed bug bites can be recognized by bites which are in a line.

Signs and Symptoms

In some cases of bed bug infestation, a person may notnotice any visible signs, while in other cases individuals only experiencesmall maculas. Severe cases may involve prominent bullae and whealsusually accompanied by rather severe itching. Central hemorrhagic spots mayoccur because the anticoagulants get released from the parasite's saliva.

Bites may occuror not show any symptoms over the course of several days in some cases. Themost commonly affected areas of the body include the legs, shoulders and thearms and these body parts are the ones which show the skin reactions the most. If aperson suffers a significant number of bites, he or she may also experienceother medical problems such as urticaria and erythematous rash. Bed bugbites may also be involved in certain types of psychological symptoms such asinsomnia, stress and anxiety, but those occur only in severe cases. Some casesof bed big infestation have included refractory delusional parasitosis onthe list of psychological symptoms. In this condition the unfortunate patientbecomes overwhelmed and obsessed with bed bugs. Bed bug bites may additionally beinvolved with certain other symptoms such as anaphylaxis. Severe cases of bedbug bites sometimes lead to development of anemia due to loss of blood.If a person scratches the skin, he or she may develop different types ofbacterial skin infections. Excessive number of bed bug bites may easily lead to development of other medical conditions such as systemic poisoning,asthma, and poor sleep.


In order to treat the patient properly, he or she first needsto be kept away from repeated bites. The medications used for the treatment ofbed bug bites usually involve systemic or topical corticosteroids andantihistamines. Bed bugs need to be eradicated from the home or theworkplace in order to complete the treatment. Pesticide and non pesticides areused in equal amounts and the most commonly used ones include malathion,dichlorvos and pyrethroids. It is also highly recommended to vacuum andapply heat treatment on the bed sheets.


It is a devastating fact that bed bugs can be foundvirtually everywhere around the world. Due to resistance to insecticides and anincreased rate of international travel, the rate of infestation has increasedsignificantly in the countries of the developed world. During the 1940s bedbugs were almost completely eradicated from the lives of human beings mostlydue to the invention of the vacuum cleaner and other useful machines used for thehygiene of a person and his or her home. In 1995, the bed bug explosionhappened again.

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