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Kidney, renal stones, are small, hard deposits that form inside the renal pelvis and eventually leave kidneys, enter the ureters and are via the bladder eliminated from the body. The condition characterized by formation of these deposits is known as nephrolithiasis.

There are many factors which contribute to formation of kidney stones and numerous diseases that may induce this health issue. Still, the major problem in almost all cases of kidney stones is their movement from the kidney and potential obstruction of lower portions of the urinary tract.

Types of Kidney Stones

Calcium oxalate or calcium phosphate kidney stones are two most common types of renal calculi. Basically, most kidney stones contain calcium as their main constituent. Vast amounts of calcium are incorporated into bones and teeth while remnant calcium circulates in the blood. If there is too much calcium in the blood, it is excreted via kidneys. This is a risk factor for calcium kidney stones.

Struvite is a kidney stone that develops during some infections in the urinary tract. This specific type of kidney stone contains magnesium and plenty of ammonia.

Uric Acid kidney stone develops as a consequence of excess of uric acid in urine. People who consume too much meat are prone to uric acid kidney stones.

Cystine kidney stones develop if there is too much cystine buildup in the urine. Such kidney stones run in families i.e. affect individuals suffering from cystinuria.

Kidney Stones Prevention

Even though some individuals are simply predisposed to renal calculi, there are certain ways which can prevent, or at least postpone kidney stone formation.

The first thing one should do is make simple dietary changes. Fluid intake must be abundant with at least 2.5 liter of fluid taken each day. Plenty of water makes urine less concentrated, hence the chance of crystallization and kidney stone formation reduces. In hot weather, while exercising or performing any activity which makes one sweat profusely, he/she must bring intake of fluid to a higher level.

Some types of kidney stones can be prevented if one reduces foods rich in an element that makes the essence of the kidney stone. For instance, calcium oxalate kidney stones may be prevented if one consumes fewer oxalate-rich foods. People prone to uric acid stones are due to consume less meat. And finally, if one has to deal with calcium kidney stones, there need to be more investigation regarding the underlying cause. Sometimes calcium supplements may be blamed for calcium kidney stones. Their discontinuation prevents further formation of calcium kidney stones. The only way to prevent struvite stones is to eradicate all the microorganisms responsible for urinary infection and prevent urinary infection recurrence.

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