There are two main groups of eye pain causes, the ocular and the orbital pain.
The first group is ocular pain which appears on the surface of the eye. The most common problem with the eye is conjunctivitis. It is viral, bacterial, chemical or allergic inflammation of the membrane covering the eye. The symptoms of the conjunctivitis are pink membrane, mild or no pain an itching. Another cause of the eye pain can be abrasions and ulcerations of the surface of the eye. This can be a consequence of an injury or a foreign body in the eye. The symptom is pain and you have the feeling that something fell into your eye. Chemical and sun burns can also cause pain in the eye. You can get these if you expose yourself to acid or chemical substances, or from exposing to the sun for too long. An eyelid and oil gland inflammation can cause pain. Also an irritation can cause pain especially if a lump which is painful when you touch it appears.The second group is orbital pain which appears in the eye or behind it and it is usually a result of a disease. In rare cases glaucoma can cause pain. Glaucoma is a consequence of the pressure in the eye which can lead to vision loss. Another cause of the orbital eye pain is an inflammation of the colored part of the eye (iritis). An inflamed optic nerve can be painful and it can cause problems with vision. This can be a consequence of viral or bacterial infection. Also, an inflammation of the sinuses or migraines can be the reason your eye hurts. Various injuries can cause a lot of pain and in such case you should see a specialist.
Symptoms of the pain in the eye can be problems with vision (loss or double vision, colorful circles seen around light, spots or shadows seen before the eyes), sensitivity to light, pain when you look in different directions, limited movement of the eye and headaches.
Indications that you have a problem with the eyes are pink or red membrane of the eye, red colored part of the eye, the pupil is shaped abnormally, swelling or enlargement of the eye, the eyelids or the tissue around the eye, and burning or itching sensation.If the condition with you eye is severe you should visit a doctor but if the symptoms are mild, you can treat it at home. In most cases, you should flush your eye with tap water or a solution which you bought. If there is a foreign body in your eye, see a doctor as soon as possible. In case you suffer from conjunctivitis, abrasions, ulcerations, chemical burns, glaucoma or eye inflammations, your doctor should prescribe antibiotics, eye drops or painkillers and establish the further therapy.