At the beginning of this text, we will explain how a human spine is constructed. The main components of the spine are joints, vertebrates and discs. The vertebras, which are basically bones, are connected with joints and the discs are performing the function of vertebrae connection. One disc is located between every vertebra, and they help the spine with pressure, by absorbing shocks. Joints are also very important, since they help the spine to move. In the spine construction, we can also find ligaments and muscles, and their function is to glue everything together. Naturally, an injury can affect any of the stated parts of the spine. Some actions, like improper or sudden movement, can produce problems with ligaments and muscles and because of the mentioned actions, sprains and strains of the muscles and ligaments can occur. Disc also has a ligament part, which is also sprain liable. When this occurs, nerve can experience pressure, because bulged disc will make strong pressure on the nerve. Areas like head, neck, down arm or shoulder can experience problems like swelling and pain because of the sprain or a strain. In some cases, pain comes immediately after the injury, in some after, and sometimes pain can even be increasing over a period of time.
What kinds of problems do these conditions bring? The main problem is the pain, while others include headaches, arm burning, restricted head movement, and neck and shoulder stiffness. Moving the affected muscles or ligaments can result in a pain increase. If the pain is in the neck, moving your head can induce pain. Problems can occur when people sleep in a sitting position, have improper posture, and have long periods of sitting, frequent plain trips, increase activity or play sports without warming up first. In order to prevent these problems from happening, you have to use neck support when sitting, try doing some neck and shoulder exercises to make them stronger, learn how to sit properly and be aware of the symptoms stated. For diagnosis, complicated test like x-ray are done only if the physical therapy isn't giving any results. Treatment will start with three days of rest, during which ice pack needs to be applied for 20 minutes, three or four times a day. For chronic problems, heat needs to be applied in the same manner. Other methods include the use of a collar, but you should also try to detect pain free body positions, take pauses in sitting and standing and use cervical pillow. As for the posture you can use to reduce the pain, when laying down, on side or back, use a soft pillow and a towel under the neck. Remember that ears, hips and shoulders have to be in a straight line for the body to be in a proper position. When you experience pain, never perform exercises which induce pain; instead, perform exercises which remove discomfort.