Introduction to Frequent Urination
Urination is a normal, physiological process which helps in elimination of excess of fluids as well as many waste products from the body. Frequent urination is not considered normal unless it is caused by increased intake of water and other fluids. It typically occurs in infections of the urinary tract, in diabetes mellitus and many other conditions. Frequent urination must be reported as soon as possible particularly if there are additional symptoms and signs. It is essential to identify the underlying cause of the problem and treat it accordingly. This way primary disease is brought under control and potential complications can be prevented.
Frequent urination can affect both genders and people of all ages. The problem interferes in everyday activities and performance in general.
What Causes Frequent Urination in Women?
The first thing which makes women more susceptible to frequent urination is a variation in hormone levels. Changes in level of female hormones occur during menstrual cycle and become even more noticeable during pregnancy and menopause. When we talk about pregnancy it is necessary to mention one specific problem. In pregnant women the growth of the fetus and the uterus eventually leads to compression of the bladder. This compression varies among women and is most prominent in the third trimester (in multiple pregnancy it can occur even during the second trimester). Compression of the bladder makes a woman feel increased urge to urinate and she does urinate more often than usual.
One of the common causes of frequent urination in women is cystitis (inflammation of the bladder). Irritation of the bladder is accompanied by frequent urination and additional symptoms and signs such as burning sensation during urination, pain in the lower abdomen, changes in urine's appearance etc.
Frequent urination can be also associated with other medical conditions. For example, this symptoms is only one characteristic of diabetes mellitus. In fact, it is one of its first signs. Frequent urination also occurs due to the presence of kidney stones and in patients suffering from certain kidney disorders (e.g. polyuric phase of acute renal failure). Even malignancies such as bladder cancer may feature with frequent urination. Any damage to the nerves which innervate the bladder (stroke, multiple sclerosis etc) may cause changes in urine output and in some patients increased urination.
And finally, in some cases frequent urination develops as a consequence of intake of certain medications. One example is intake of diuretics which increase elimination of fluid from the body and boost urine output.