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Complications of surgery

Surgery is essential part of modern medicine since it can help with conditions that cannot be treated in other ways. However, surgery caries certain risks whether it is plastic, abdominal or any other surgery.

Anesthesia

There is a local and general anesthesia. Local anesthesia is applied in minor procedures. General anesthesia includes drugs that that induce deep sleep hence ignorance of pain but it is also necessary for patient to avoid trauma and to prevent his uncontrolled motion during the procedure. Anesthesiologist administers anesthesia and inserts the tube for undisturbed respiration of patient. 

Since general anesthesia can lead to stop of breathing and heart beating it needs to be carefully monitored during surgery.

Hemorrhage

Cutting during surgery results in bleeding which can be stopped with hemostatic clamps or cauterization instruments. Massive blood loss can occur by the end of surgical procedure, especially if it is a longer procedure. Blood transfusion is necessary before surgery for patients with anemia.

Risks Connected to Cardiovascular System

Before surgical procedure patient has to undergo certain evaluation of cardiovascular risk factors since there is a possibility of cardiac arrest and heart failure during operation. This can happen postoperatively as well. In some cases there is a higher cardiac risk connected to health problem that requires surgery.

Lesions

After the surgical procedure every lesion external or internal has to cure. Sutures can be used to keep closed larger wounds and some pain killers can be given to patient to deal with this process. Scars can be removed by cosmetic surgery, but all in all they cannot be avoided.

Infections

Even with all safety measures infections can occur in hospital, especially infections of surgical wounds.

Pulmonary risks

With postoperative patients there is a risk of forming a blood clot in the leg that can come off and stuck lung circulation i.e. pulmonary embolism. If blood is hypercoagulable and tends to form clots risk can be decreased by administration of blood-thinning medications.

Additionally, in postoperative phase patients can have difficulties with breathing and feel weak. Lungs may collapse as well. To help with the problem incentive spirometry can be used. It helps patients to breath. Other may need to be on a ventilator if they can’t breathe on their own.

In the end, all of the surgical risks are minimal but the surgery shouldn’t be taken lightly. On the other hand benefits of surgical treatment shouldn’t be disregard because of the risks. Benefits and risks should be properly outweighed and discussed between patients and doctors. 

 

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