Complications of Pregnancy Complications of pregnancy can include usual problems that are no threat to mother or the baby and serious problems that can lead to death of mother or the fetus.
Routine Maternal Problems Include
It is very common for mothers to be to experience: Back pain - present usually in third trimester, can be treated with exercises, massage, and muscle relaxants.Carpal tunnel syndrome – present in 21% to 62 %, most likely because of edema.Constipation – caused by increased level of progesterone; eating fruit and food rich with fibers, drinking lot of water, seat softeners and PO fluids can help.Contractions – it is normal if they occur several times a day and if they are irregular; they are caused by dehydration and can be treated with sufficient amount of fluid intake. In case of regular contractions it should be reported to practitioner since it can be indication of preterm labor.Dehydration – can be prevented with taking fluids; complication of dehydration are uterine contractions.Edema – pressure in lower extremities; mother should sleep on the side and raise her legs above hearth.GERD or gastroesophageal reflux disease – antacids, several smaller meals per day and H2 blockers can help with the problem.Hemorrhoids – treating constipation, steroids and certain anesthetics are common way to relieve of this problem.Lower abdominal pain – caused by uterus extension, it is treated with paracetamol. Frequent need to urinate – due to pressure on the bladder. It is normal and it is not treated except in case that urinalysis shows a presence of infection.Varicose veins – alleviating swelling and pain with warm bath, lifting legs, avoiding obesity and standing or sitting for too long can help.Abdominal separation – palliative care and surgery.Serious maternal problems can incorporate: pelvic girdle pain (PGP)- treatment depends on level of severity hypertension: preeclampsia – BP over 160/110eclampsia – seizures in preeclamptic patient, hemolytic anemia or HELLP syndrome- increased liver enzymesdeep vein thrombosis (DVT) – the second common cause of maternal death and can be caused by massive bleeding during childbirth.Fetal problems
These are the problems that can occur in placenta or the fetus and can affect the mother:Ectopic pregnancy – embryo implanted outside the uterus, unknown cause, pregnancy must be stopped.Separation of placenta – various causes; the mother should be monitored in hospital or immediately delivered in severe cases.Multiple pregnancies – multiples can share the same chorion, the same amniotic sac and very rarely can become conjoined twins.