Actual cause of hemorrhoids is unknown but there are theories that are trying to give explanation to this medical problem. Known fact is that reason lies in the pressure in the muscle that surrounds the anal canal, i.e. anal sphincter. Still, it is not clear if the pressure causes hemorrhoids, or magnifies existing hemorrhoids.
Condition becomes worse if there is a pressure in anal area. Hemorrhoids become large and may jut out from the anus which is called prolapsed hemorrhoid. They can tear or rupture which causes bleeding. Anal canal can also tear due to anal fissures caused by the pressure and it will lead to bleeding from the rectum.
Hemorrhoids can be internal (inside the anus) or external (under the skin around the anus).
If pressure in the anal canal is the reason for hemorrhoid condition this may be due to various habits and conditions:
- Low fiber nutrition – if you don’t eat enough fibers you may have bowel difficulties like diarrhea or constipation that bring pressure and cause swollen or inflamed veins around the anus or lower rectum.
- Insufficient fluid intake – Dehydration can result in harder stool that can lead to constipation and as a result it may cause excess pressure in anal canal.
- Pregnancy – During delivery and pregnancy there is a big pressure on the anal area and the abdomen. Hemorrhoids are common in pregnancy.
- Exercise – weight lifting and other forms of training can bring a big pressure on the sphincter that consequently cause hemorrhoids.
- Tumors – If there is a tumor in pelvis, hemorrhoidal vessels may enlarge thus causing the condition.
- Genetic link – it is thought that hemmorhoids are hereditary and it is more likely to have it if you have someone with this condition in your family.
- Other factors – it can be obesity and sitting for long periods of time.
Hemorrhoids cannot occur because of anal sex, sitting on hard or cold surfaces, consuming black pepper or wearing wet bathing costume. It is not a condition present only in older people nor can cancer result from hemorrhoids.
All in all, special diet and avoiding certain activities can be helpful. Existing hemorrhoids can be treated in various ways like non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, sitz baths or fiber supplements. There are procedures like rubber band ligation, sclerotherapy and cautery methods. Surgery is a solution when other methods fail and it can be done by hemorrhoidrectomy, stapled hemorrhoidrectomy and Doppler guided transanal hemorrhoidal dearterlization.