Lupusis the term used for the disease when the body’s immune system attacks organsand tissues. This disease is chronic and causes inflammation which has thenegative effects on the skin, joints, lungs, blood cells, andheart. Although the reason is not known, this disease usually occurs inwomen. There are four classes of lupus: systemic lupus erythemotosus,which is the most frequent, and dangerous; discoid lupus erythemotosus;drug-induced lupus erythemotosus; and neonatal lupus erythemotosus. Peoplewho treat this correctly can have normal life, which is why it is important toconsult the doctor once when the symptoms are noticed. The doctor willprescribe the proper medications and treatment according to the patient’s age,health, symptoms, and lifestyle.
Thereare four aims for lupus treatment. The first is to decrease the inflammation,then to make the immune system stronger and prevent or treat flares, andfinally to prevent the appearance of the possible complications. Lupus canbe mild or severe, and the medications depend on the seriousness of thedisease. At the beginning of the treatment, the doctors usually prescribe fourtypes of medicines: nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications, antimalarialmedications, corticosteroids and immunosuppressives or also calleddisease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatorydrugs are available at the chemists’ even without the doctor’s prescription,although it is always recommended to visit and ask the doctor before startingthe treatment with this kind of drugs. This kind of medications has analgesic,anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic features, and is used to treat joint pain,inflammation and swelling, muscle pain, and rib cage pain. Aspirin andibuprofen are mostly used, but the side effects can appear, such as stomachbleeding, heart and kidney problems.
Of allthe antimalarial drugs, hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine are most commonly in used. Lupus arthritis, skin rashes, mouth ulcers, fatigue, and fever arecommonly treated with antimalarial drugs. In some cases these drugs can causevision problems or muscle weakness. Using corticosteroids as medicationsfor lupus can lead to several serious side effects such as high blood pressure,diabetes, thinning bones, the gaining of weight, and risk of some infections.It is recommended to take them in small doses, as well as with vitamin D andcalcium as prevention for osteoporosis. Prednisone, Hydrocortisone,methlyprednisolone, and dexamethasone are corticosteroids used for treatinglupus. Immunosuppressives are used to treat affected kidneys, muscleinflammatory and intractable arthritis. Azathioprine, cyclophosphamide,mycophenolate, methotrexate, and Cyclosporine are the most usedimmunosuppressives. The most frequently side effects are immunosuppression,increased risks to some infections, the occurrence of malignancies, and bonemarrow suppression. Diuretics, antihypertensives, anticonvulsants, andantibiotics are also prescribed by the doctor in treatment of this disease.