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Acute dizziness is one of the most common medical problems aroundthe world. In most cases it is not anything serious but still one needs tounderstand that acute dizziness and vertigo may be triggered by certain seriouscauses. Such serious situations require immediate treatment in order to preventthe disastrous consequences. Proper diagnosis needs to determine if thesymptoms and the dysfunction are at a peripheral or central level. The severityof the symptoms cannot always indicate the severity of the actual problem mostaccurately. Physical examination may provide numerous clues which may help indifferentiating between central and peripheral causes of acute dizziness orvertigo.

Central causes of Acute Vertigo

Vertigo which is associated with the central nervous systemis usually caused by a medical condition known as cerebrovascular ischemia. Ina smaller number of cases it can also be triggered by another medical conditionknown as multiple sclerosis. These two medical conditions usually affectpersons from completely different age groups and they are associated withcompletely different risk factors. Some cases of migraine can also beassociated with episodic vertigo. If a person suffers from vertebrobasilarinsufficiency, he or she may experience some transient symptoms which usuallydo not last more than just one hour. If a person suffers from focal weakness oracute speech problems, he or she is usually suffering from acute CVA. Somecases of posterior circulatory stroke syndrome still are not associated withfocal weakness.

Peripheral Causes of Acute Vertigo

Acute vertigo can also be triggered by certain types ofperipheral causes. The most common peripheral cause of acute vertigo anddizziness is a medical condition known as vestibular neuronitis. This medicalcondition commonly requires only a few hours to evolve fully, and it getsimproved over the course of the next few days. The residua of vestibularneuronitis sometimes may last for weeks, and in some rare cases even formonths. It is very hard to establish the cause of this medical condition, butit is thought that it is viral in most cases. If a person suffers from acutevertigo which is accompanied by hearing loss, he or she is usually experiencinga medical condition referred to as neurolabyrinthitis. It occurs when thebalance between the two sides of the peripheral vestibular structures becomesaffected. Certain types of ototoxic drugs are known for causing bilateraleffects on the peripheral vestibular structures. Slowly growing lesions, perilymph fistulasand Meniere’s disease can also be held responsible for the onset of acutevertigo.

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