Sinusitis is defined as inflammation of the paranasal sinuses mucosa caused by the inadequate drainage due to obstruction of the entrances, infections or allergies. Most often it is after-viral bacterial superinfection of maxillary sinuses in the form of rhinosinusitis.
CausesSinusitis can be caused by any process which disables the normal flow of air and secretion drainage from the sinuses. Common cold; allergic reactions such as hay sneezing, followed by excessive use of sprays and drops for the nose; the use of illegal substances such as cocaine and especially cigarette smoke are factors that lead to thickening of the nasal mucosa, total or partial closure of small openings that connect the sinuses and nasal passages and secretion accumulation in the sinuses. This secretion is the ideal foundation for the growth of bacteria and the development of bacterial sinusitis. The most common bacteria that lead to the development of acute sinusitis are Streptococcus pneumoniae, Hemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarhalis. Anaerobic bacteria, Streptococcus group A, Streptococcus aureus and Gram-negative bacteria are less commonly isolated.
Sinusitis can therefore be divided into infectious and noninfectious and by the course of the illness it may be acute, subacute and chronic. Acute sinusitis lasts up to 30 days, subacute sinusitis lasts for more than 30 days but less than three months, while chronic sinusitis is form of the disease in which symptoms are expressed for more than three months. Viral sinusitis is more common than bacterial. It should be noted that the subacute and chronic sinusitis are usually a result of inadequate treatment of acute sinusitis.
SymptomsSymptoms of acute sinusitis include:
- fever and malaise
- pain in the area of the face and forehead, which worsens on the pressure and when leaning forward and spreads to the teeth
- increased yellow-green secretion from the nose
- nasal congestion and stuffiness
- the swelling around eyes and soft tissue above the affected sinus
- smell disorders
- blurred nasal discharge
- sore throat and cough
Chronic sinusitis is manifested in a secretion interflow down the nasopharynx which is followed by burning, difficult swallowing and a persistent cough.
When it comes to allergic sinusitis there is an often sneezing. Patients shouldn’t wait on the occurrence of severe symptoms before they visit the doctor. Delay in treatment leads to greater accumulation of secretion and increases the risk of bacterial infection.