Gastric ulcer is a painful small sore in the stomach mucosa. Gastric acid plays a primary role in the formation of the disease since the intact mucosa covered with a layer of mucus, protects from effects of acid that is normally secreted in the stomach preventing the creation of small wounds. The disease has in most cases one or rarely more sores in the gastric mucosa usually in the region of its lower third where the stomach passes into the duodenum. Sore is round or oval half to two centimeters wide with regular edges.
Today it is considered that the gastric ulcer is caused by bacteria Helicobacter pylori. However H. pylori infection does not mean with certainty that ulcer is going to appear. It depends on the characteristics of the patient type of H. pylori and some other unknown factors. There is no reliably evidence about exact route of transmission of infection (food, water, direct contact, kissing, dirty hands). H. pylori weakens the protective mucous membrane allowing the penetration of acid through the layer below it which creates ulcer. H. pylori survives in gastric acid secreting enzymes that neutralize it. Genetic predisposition and risk factors such as smoking, alcohol intake and caffeine play a decisive role in the development of disease. Hot spices or stress are not its agents as first thought but may stimulate its development and worsen symptoms.
Gastric ulcer symptoms include pain different intensity and variety of manifestations which occur almost always at the same time one to three hours after meal. Problems can be mitigated by taking soda or a little food. Pain caused by stomach ulcer occurs periodically usually in the fall or spring last for several days and then it passes. But as disease progresses, painful period lasts longer and the distance between the two periods is getting shorter. The painful period is usually accompanied with:pain in stomach heartburn and feeling of "etching" and "pluck" in the stomach that occurs in the night or between meals pain in the region of the sternum or upper abdomen that often wakes up during sleep in black stool nausea and vomiting. One of the most common complication of gastric ulcer is the presence of blood in the stool often in minimum quantity and rarely vomiting blood. Bleeding occurs because the gastric ulcer also breaks down some minor or major blood vessel and opens it. The ulcer bleeding manifestoes when patient is pale and faints.
In order to cure gastric ulcer patient must change his/her way of life. First of all patient should avoid eating spicy food drinking alcohol and smoking. It is necessary to provide enough sleep and whenever is possible rest after meals.
Prevention of disease include avoiding the stress as much as possible taking healthy food avoiding the use of antirheumatic drugs that damage the gastric mucosa not reaching easily for Aspirin eating at least five meals a day using plenty of fruits and vegetables stop smoking and eating fat and milk which regulates the pH value of gastric acid.