Colitis is the name used for the inflammation of the colon, and it can be caused by the various infections and diseases. There are five types of colitis which include infectious colitis, ischemic colitis, ulcerative colitis as a type of inflammatory bowel diseases, microscopic colitis, and chemic colitis. There are two types of inflammatory bowel diseases: ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease. Ulcerative colitis is an autoimmune disease, since the body's immune system attacks the colon and causes the inflammation. The inflammation begins in the rectum and then gradually spreads further. Symptoms that accompany this disease are bloody stool and abdominal pain. These two inflammatory diseases are chronic and can last for many years, even decades.
Depending on the extent of the disease and the intensity of inflammation, ulcerative colitis can be divided into several groups. Ulcerative proctitis refers to the inflammation of rectum only, while proctosigmoiditis is the inflammation of the rectum and sigmoid colon. These two types of ulcerative colitis have the same symptoms, such as rectum bleeding, rectum pain, urgency, and tenesmus. In some cases bloody diarrhea and cramps occur. Left-sided colitis is the inflammation of the rectum and left colon. Bloody diarrhea, abdominal cramps, and weight loss may occur as symptoms, as well as left-sided abdominal pain. Pancolitis or universal colitis refers to the inflammation of the entire colon which is consisted of right colon, left colon, transverse colon, and the rectum. The most common symptoms that accompany this type of colitis are bloody diarrhea, abdominal pain, cramps, weight loss, fatigue, fever, and night sweats. A severe form of pancolitis is called fulminant colitis. People who suffer from fulminant colitis have severe abdominal pain, dehydration, bloody diarrhea, and even shock.
The doctors usually prescribe some anti-inflammatory drugs when treating the ulcerative colitis. Azulfidine, Asacol, Pentasa, Dipentum, Colazal, and Rowasa are very effective medications. Infectious colitis is caused by viruses and bacteria. With this kind of colitis, bloody diarrhea and dehydration appear, and in some cases, they are accompanied with fever. Ischemic colitis occurs due to insufficient blood supply to the colon, due to narrowing of the arteries that bring blood. In that case, an inflammation happens. This kind of colitis is manifested through dehydration, anemia, shock, fever, and bloody stools. Collagenous colitis and lymphocytic colitis are two types of the microscopic colitis. The inflammation happens in some layers of the colon because collagen or lymphocytes are engorged. The most common symptom that appears with this colitis is watery diarrhea.