The pituitary gland
The pituitary gland is located partlyin the anterior lobe and partly in the brain. The mentioned anterior lobe isresponsible for the control of the levels of lactation, body steroids, sexhormone, growth hormone and thyroid gland, while the pituitary gland isresponsible for the entire system of the hormones. If the tumor of pituitarygland happens, in most cases it is benign, but regardless of its type orlocation, prognosis is usually good, since most tumors can be removed. Tumorscan develop on the structures located behind the eyeballs, and they are calledcavernous sinuses. These structures are important, since they are responsiblefor eye movement and eye nerves. If the mentioned tumor is developed, patientswill experience headache, eyeball protrusion and double vision.
Next we will talk about some ofthe syndromes which suggest the type of tumor. If speaking of the most commonones, the first is the prolactin syndrome, which involves the tumor located onthe pituitary glands prolactin secreting cells. This is one of the most commonand produces problems with menstrual cycle, breast milk production and decreaseof the levels of calcium in bones. This tumor can easily be removed in earlystage, while later stage is somewhat different.
Gigantism syndrome involvesgrowth hormone that is secreted from the cells of the pituitary gland. Thistumor produces protruding the eyebrows, acute arthritis, large and protruding jaw.If the tumor is not connected with secretion, radiation can be used for thetreatment of these tumors, though the treatment may involve a surgery as well.These tumors cause vision problems and extremely big tumor size. If the tumoris developed in the adrenal cortiocotrophin hormone secreting cell, Cushingdisease is created. This tumor can be difficult to locate, since it is small insize. It produces fat deposits, skin scarring, high body temperature, pimplesand increased blood pressure. Surgery is the only treatment available.
Since the pituitary gland islocated behind the nose, in past times brain surgery was needed. Today, riskscan be reduced if the surgery is performed through the nasal cavity. In laterstages, tumor can produce pituitary apoplexy, which is like a stroke. If thishappens, double vision and acute headaches will be felt.
When we talk aboutsurgeries, the medium tumors are easy to remove, and after that, the gland willresume to function properly. This also goes for the large tumors with necroticcenters. If the prolactinomas are found, medications will be needed. They areused before the surgery to decrease the tumor's size. Treatment of the microprolactinomasis not recommended, since they usually stay for years and cause no greatproblems.