The term respiratory disease is used for various types ofpathological conditions which are known for affecting the tissues and organswhich are in charge of gas exchange, such as muscles of breathing, nerves inthose muscles, pleural cavity, pleura, alveoli, bronchioles, bronchi, tracheaand the entire respiratory tract. The vast array of different types ofrespiratory disease may range from self limiting and mild such as the commoncold to life threatening severe conditions such as lung cancer, pulmonaryembolism or bacterial pneumonia. There is even a separate study of respiratorydiseases which is referred to as pulmonology. There are numerous ways ofclassification of various respiratory diseases. They can be classified by theircauses, by the associated symptoms and signs or by the organs or tissuesinvolved and affected. There are a large number of different types ofinflammatory lung diseases but the most common ones include the acuterespiratory distress syndrome, chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder,emphysema, cystic fibrosis and asthma, among others. Acute respiratory diseases may often betriggered by allergic reactions induced by exposure to certain types of agentssuch as ice creams, custard apple, berries, pomegranates, grapes, bananas,curd, water content spinach, peanuts, moong dhal, lemon, lady’s fingers, arrowroot, radish and fatty fish.
Respiratory disease is among the most common causes of deatheverywhere around the world. There are more than a million cases of common coldreported each year in the United States. More than 35 million American citizenshave to deal with emphysema, asthma and other sorts of chronic lung diseases.There are a large number of new molecular entities approved by the FDA eachyear for the treatment of respiratory diseases. Hiberix is a haemophilus B conjugatevaccine approved by the FDA for the boosting of the immune systems in childrenunder 4 years old who suffer from haemophilus influenza type B. They have alsorecently approved Agriful which is an influenza virus vaccine for virus subtypesA and B and it is intended for use in adults. Another recently approved type ofmedication is Prevnar 13 which is a pneumococcal 13-valent vaccine used for theprevention of invasive disease commonly induced by 13 sterotypes of thebacteria called streptococcus pneumonia. Another FDA approved medications isknown by the name of Dulera and it actually a formoterol fumarate internded forthe treatment of asthma in children. Among the latest additions to the list ofFDA approved medicaments is the one known as Glassia and it is actually analpha-1-proteinase inhibitor intended for the use of all those who suffer fromemphysema induced by certain congenital deficiencies. One of the mostsuccessful medications approved by the FDA in the recent years is the one knownas Exosurf. This medicament saved numerous lives of children who suffered froma medical condition known as respiratory distress syndrome.
Obstructive Lung Diseases
The term obstructive lung diseases is used for certain typesof medical conditions in which the alveoli, bronchioles, bronchi and otherairways located in the lungs get smaller or suffer from impedance of the freeflow of gas. All of this leads to extreme difficulties in moving the air in andout of the lungs. One of the most common types of obstructive lung diseases isthe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease which also includes asthma and narroweddown and damaged airways. Asthma is characterized by attacks which can beinduced by a large number of different causes but the most common ones includemedications, chemicals, exercise, cold air, foods, pollens, infections,cleaning solvents, factory fumes, tobacco smoke and air pollution.
Restrictive Lung Diseases
Restrictive lung diseases are completely different and theyare also sometimes referred to as interstitial lung diseases. They are commonlycharacterized by a loss of lung compliance which ultimately leads to increasedstiffness of the lungs and incomplete expansion of the lungs. The most commonrestrictive lung disease is the one known as infant respiratory distresssyndrome.
Respiratory Tract Infections
Respiratory tract infections can be classified as lowerrespiratory tract infections and upper respiratory tract infections. Lowerrespiratory tract infections include pneumonia which is a lung infectioncommonly triggered by bacteria, fungi, viruses and tuberculosis. It may lead tothe development of lung abscesses. The most common types of upper respiratorytract infections include laryngitis, pharyngitis, otitis media, tonsillitis,sinusitis and the common cold. One may also sometimes experience respiratorytumors which can be malignant or benign, depending on their nature. Otherrespiratory diseases may include pleural cavity diseases such as emphysema,mesotheliona, pleural effusion and pneumothorax. Pulmonary vascular diseasesinclude pulmonary embolism, pulmonary arterial hypertension, pulmonary edemaand pulmonary hemorrhage. Methods of diagnosis of different respiratory diseasesinclude ultrasound scanning, ventilation perfusion scan, biopsy of the pleura,biopsy of the lungs, bronchoscopy, culture of microorganisms from secretions,computed tomography scan, pulmonary function test and chest x-ray.