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How does the digestive system work

In order to live, we have to eat. This might mean that digestive system is one of the most important systems in the body, if not the most important one. Digestive system has a lot of elements and it is a complex structure, which should be nurtured properly. 


It all starts with the mouth cavity. This cavity consists of the teeth, tongue and oral glands and the substance secreted here is saliva. Its main role is in softening the food, so it can continue more easily down the road. Teeth are very important part of digestion process. If food is not thoroughly chopped into tiny pieces, the digestive system will have problems. This especially goes for solid food, which takes a lot of time to digest. There is also tongue with a role of pushing the food backwards and towards esophagus, a passage that connects mouth with stomach.


This is the next stop when it comes to food. Main ingredient of digestive juice here is HCL. It breaks down food into material that can pass on to intestinal tract. In intestines, the absorption of food happens. The nutrients pass through the wall of intestines and enter the blood stream and cells. If there are excessive nutrients, glucose for example, it will be stored in fat cells. When existing fat cells are filled with new fat, new fat cells will be created. Fat cells cannot be destroyed normally, but their volume can be decreased, which happens in weight reduction process. Final step on the road is colon, which is where material that could not be used is stored until defecation process starts.

This is the basic explanation. It should be mentioned that there are a lot of enzymes that participate in this process, which are secreted in stomach and intestines. One of the problems that might disrupt digestive process is lack of those enzymes or their improper functioning. Example for this is lactose intolerance, which happens because there is no enzyme that breaks down lactose into smaller molecules. Another problem that might occur is the increased secretion of HCL in the stomach. Actually, muscles that connect esophagus and stomach are not working properly and that is why HCL enters esophagus and damages its walls, which might lead to stenosis of esophagus. As for mouth, things are obvious. Good toothbrush and tooth paste, along with regular cleaning and washing, should be enough to keep the oral hygiene at the top level.

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