Fever blisters in the mouth form as a consequence of infection caused by Herpes Simplex Virus type 1 (HSV 1). The primary infection is in a form of multiple blisters that may affect the lips, the inner surface of the mouth and the nose. Recurrent infection most commonly features with formation of blisters on the lips.
Recurrence of the infection is caused by weakening of the immune system. Herpes simplex virus is commonly reactivated in immunocompromised patients and those on immunosuppressive treatment.
The virus is highly contagious and can be easily transmitted with direct contact. The blisters that form on the skin may not rupture at once while those inside the oral cavity due to moisture rupture soon after they form. This leads to severe and unbearable pain, increase salivation and problems with chewing and swallowing.
Presentation of Fever Blisters in Mouth
Primary infection with Herpes simplex virus type 1 develops after a person has been in contact with the virus. The infection affects the tongue, gums and throat and features with blisters that soon rupture and form shallow ulcerations. Fever blisters in mouth lead to gingivostomatitis and they commonly affect children between the age of 6 months and 3 years. The infection is painful, leads to fever, swallowing difficulties and may in some cases cause swelling of the regional lymph nodes. Since the person does not take sufficient amount of fluids (because the act of swallowing causes severe pain) there is a risk of dehydration.
Recurrent infection develops in patients with weakened immune system and may be triggered with trauma, high fever, exposure to sun, menstruation etc. In recurrent form of the disease fever blisters develop on the lips. They form clusters of vesicles that may or may not rupture. These skin lesions may drain spontaneously and form a crust that stays for approximately a week. The most intensive symptoms such as itchiness of the affected area, pain and tingling sensation occur 8 hours after herpes outbreak.
Treatment for Fever Blisters in Mouth
There is no cure for fever blisters. However, the symptoms and signs of the disease may be partially brought under control. For example, the pain can be reduced with certain medications. Patients are prescribed panciclovir and famciclovir. Even though these antiviral drugs can prevent further replication of the virus, they cannot take care of already formed vesicles and ulcerations in the mouth.
During the infection patients are supposed to abstain from spicy, salty and bitter foods. The oral cavity can be rinsed with hydrogen peroxide. And there are several more home remedies but prior trying any of them one is due to consult a doctor.